Unit 4, Question 1 - AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2008...

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Unformatted text preview: AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2008 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 3 Analyze the impact of the market revolution (1815–1860) on the economies of TWO of the following regions. The Northeast The Midwest The South The 8–9 Essay • Contains a clear, well-developed thesis that analyzes the impact of the market revolution (1815– 1860) on the economies of TWO regions. • Develops the thesis with substantial and relevant historical information. • Provides strong analysis and effectively links the market revolution to TWO regions; treatment of regions may be somewhat uneven. • May contain minor errors that do not detract from the overall quality of the essay. • Is well organized and well written. The 5–7 Essay • Contains a thesis that partially analyzes the impact of the market revolution (1815–1860) on the economies of TWO regions. • Supports the thesis with some relevant, historical information. • Provides some analysis and some linkage of the market revolution to TWO regions; treatment of regions may be substantially uneven. • May contain errors that do not seriously detract from the quality of the essay. • Has acceptable organization and writing. The 2–4 Essay • Contains an undeveloped, confused, or unfocused thesis, or may simply restate the question. • Provides minimal relevant information with little or no application to the market revolution. • Addresses the impact of the market revolution regarding only one region, OR describes two regions in a general way. • May contain major errors. • May be poorly organized and/or written. The 0–1 Essay • Lacks a thesis or simply restates the question. • Demonstrates an incompetent or inappropriate response. • Has little or no understanding of the question. • Contains substantial errors. • Is poorly organized and/or written. The — Essay • Is completely off topic or blank. © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2008 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 3 Information List The Market Revolution—General Impact • Decline of subsistence agriculture • The “transportation revolution”: spreading networks of turnpikes, roads, canals, and railroads o National or Cumberland Road (1811, completed in 1852) o Erie Canal (1825, 364 miles--Albany to Buffalo) • The steamboat; Robert Fulton • Impact of the War of 1812 • Henry Clay’s American System o Second National Bank, 1817 o Tariff of 1816 o Internal improvements • Emergence of new markets in land, labor, and produce • “Mixed enterprise” financial system; New York Stock Exchange, 1817 • American system of manufacturing: low-cost, standardized mass production, built around interchangeable parts (Eli Whitney) produced by machines • Increased economic instability: Panics of 1819, 1833, 1837, and 1857 • Rise of new working class: trade unions • Conflicts between sections: capitalist forms of labor and market agriculture in North, slave-based order in South • Conflicts within each section: entrepreneurs and wage earners, masters and slaves, planters and yeomen • Second Bank of the United States o “Bank War,” 1832 o Specie Circular, 1836 • Inventions: (1800, 306 patents; 1860, 28,000 patents) o Samuel F. B. Morse (telegraph, 1849) o Elias Howe (sewing machine, 1846; perfected by Singer) o John Deere (steel plow, 1837) o Cyrus McCormick (mechanical mower-reaper, 1830s) o By 1840s: high-pressure steam engine • Population: 5.3 million in 1800 increases to more than 23 million in 1850; urban population quadruples from 1800 to 1840 • Immigration: 1840 to 1860, 4.2 million immigrants (mostly Irish 1845-46 [potato blight], 1.5 million); four out of five settled in the Northeast • Women removed from production of goods, leading to “cult of domesticity” Impact of the Market Revolution—the Northeast • Eastern urban capitalists dramatically accelerated pace of economic change: growth of regional and interregional markets; expanded credit and financing resources; some order imposed on currency and banking; hastened erosion of old artisan handicraft system and rise of new manufacturing enterprises. • Industrial growth, particularly rise of textile mills in New England • Newly created wealth controlled by tiny proportion of population • Decline of household production and apprenticeships • Growing impersonality of economic relationships • New classes of independent and dependent Americans (artisans and journeymen) • Samuel Slater © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2008 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 3 Information List (continued) • Eli Whitney (interchangeable parts—guns, clocks) • Putting-out system • Boston Associates (founded 1813; by 1836 included eight companies with 6,000 workers) o Francis Cabot Lowell o Boston Manufacturing Company o Lowell System • Waltham system: “Lowell Girls” • Lowell, Massachusetts: the United States’ first large-scale planned manufacturing city (strikes in 1834 and 1836) • National Trade Union • Elias Howe (sewing machine) • “Wage slaves” • Spreading canal and railroad networks • Erie Canal (completed 1825); Dewitt Clinton, “Clinton Ditch,” “Canal Age” • Increased German and Irish immigration (rise in nativism) • New York is the nation’s largest city Impact of the Market Revolution—the Midwest • Increase in westward migration • Spreading canal and railroad networks linked to the Northeast • Increase in cash-crop production • New classes of independent and dependent Americans • Commercialization of agriculture in the Midwest contributes to the growth of eastern manufacturing • Pittsburgh first to develop a manufacturing sector to complement its exchange function • Cincinnati “porkopolis” (third largest industrial center by 1840) • Growth of Chicago, St. Louis, Cleveland, Detroit, and Milwaukee (populations increase twenty-fivefold between 1830 and 1850) • The National or Cumberland Road • Baltimore and Ohio Railroad • John Deere (steel plow) • McCormick Reaper (patented in 1834; plant produced 80,000 reapers by 1860) Impact of the Market Revolution—the South • Lagged behind in industrialization and urbanization, although from 1840 to 1860 South’s economy grew slightly faster than the North’s economy • Rise of Cotton Kingdom • Eli Whitney (cotton gin) • Corn was a large crop, but “King Cotton” was the largest cash crop (short staple cotton) • New Cotton Kingdom (world cotton production grows from 9 percent in 1800 to 68 percent in 1850; in 1800, 73,000 bales; in 1850, 2 million bales) • Westward expansion of plantation slavery; “Alabama Fever” • Rise of southern yeomanry • “Tariff of Abominations,” 1828 © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2008 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 3 Information List (continued) • Nullification Crisis, 1832-33 • Rise of New Orleans and Charleston • Steamboats on the Mississippi © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. ©2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. ©2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. ©2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. ©2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. ©2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. ©2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. ©2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. ©2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. ©2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. ©2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. ©2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2008 SCORING COMMENTARY Question 3 Overview This straightforward question asked students to analyze the market revolution’s impact on the economies of two of three regions (Northeast, Midwest, or South) from 1815 to 1860. The question provided broad latitude for students to make connections between the defining characteristics of the market revolution and economic transformation; students were expected to use a thematic approach. Sample: 3A Score: 9 This superb essay begins with a strong thesis that is well developed throughout, proposing that the market revolution impacted two regions in different ways. Its slightly uneven treatment of the Northeast and South supports the thesis with considerable relevant information: Lowell, Nullification Crisis, Whitney, Fulton, Erie Canal, business investment, financial markets, cotton production, and overseas trade. In the course of its analysis, the essay explores industrialization, factory life, inventions, transportation, finance and markets, commerce, and social class. The essay’s strong analysis successfully supports the argument that the market revolution’s impact greatly transformed the Northeast while it reinforced the status quo in the South. Sample: 3B Score: 6 This essay has a strong opening paragraph acknowledging the various components of the market revolution. It notes restructuring in the labor force and gender relationships in the Northeast but lacks specific information. The essay’s strength is its analysis of the market revolution in the Northeast. The lack of specific information and the essay’s uneven treatment of the South keep it in the middle of the 5–7 score category. Sample: 3C Score: 3 This essay’s thesis addresses the growth of manufacturing in the North and agriculture in the South, but it strays from the impact of the market revolution. While the essay contains a lot of specific facts from the time period (Missouri Compromise, Polk’s Mexican War, Fugitive Slave Act), the information is not used to answer the question. © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/28/2010 for the course BIOMIC Bio765 taught by Professor Sangte during the Spring '10 term at Eastern Oregon.

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