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APessay - I Molecules and Cells A CHEMISTRY AND CELLS Name...

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AP Biology ESSAY QUESTIONS I. Molecules and Cells A. CHEMISTRY AND CELLS Name _________________________ AP Bio Period __________________ 1991 Carbon is a very important element in living systems. a. Describe the various characteristics of the carbon atom that make possible the building of a variety of biological molecules. b. Explain how reactions involving carbon-containing compounds can contribute to the greenhouse effect. The following structures are examples of two different categories of biological compounds. Describe how each category of compounds is important to the structure and function of living systems. c.
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1992 A laboratory assistant prepared solutions of 0.8M, 0.6M O.4M and 0.2 Msucrose, but forgot to label them. After realizing the error, the assistant randomly labeled the flasks containing these four unknown solutions as flask A, flask B, flask C, and flask D. Design an experiment, based on the principles of diffusion and osmosis, that the assistant could use to determine which of the flasks contains each of the four unknown solutions. Include in your answer a. a description of how you would set up and perform the experiment b. the results you would expect from your experiment c. an explanation of those results based on the principles involved. (Be sure to clearly state the principles addressed in your discussion) 1994 Enzymes are biological catalysts. a. Relate the chemical structure of an enzyme to its specificity and catalytic activity. b. Design a quantitative experiment to investigate the influence of pH or Temperature on the activity of an enzyme. c. Describe what information concerning the structure of an enzyme could be inferred from your experiment. 1995 Discuss the lock-and-key theory of enzyme substrate interaction giving a specific example to illustrate the theory. Include in your discussion the effects of each of the following. a. Substrate concentration b. pH shifts c. Temperature shifts d. Competitive inhibition 1995 Discuss the biological importance of each of the following organic compounds in relation to cellular structure and function in plants and animals. a. Carbohydrates b. Proteins c. Lipids d. Nucleic acids 1995 Describe the chemical composition and configuration of enzymes and discuss the factors that modify enzyme structure and/or function. 1995 After an enzyme is mixed with its substrate, the amount of product formed is determined at 10 second intervals for 1 minute. Data from this experiment are shown below. Time (sec) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Product formed (mg) 0.00 0.25 0.50 0,70 0.80 0.85 0.85 Draw a graph of these data and answer the following questions. a. What is the initial rate of this enzymatic reaction? b. What is the rate after 50 secs? Why is it different from the initial rate? c. What would be the effect on product formation if the enzyme were heated to a temperature of 100 o C for ten minutes before repeating the experiment? Why?
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