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Lab4&8 - Laboratory Exercise 4 Human Cardiovascular...

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Laboratory Exercise # 4 Human Cardiovascular System 1) Draw a basic schematic illustrating the parts of the cardiovascular system, including the systemic circulation, the pulmonary circulation, and the types of vasculature. List some of the roles of the cardiovascular system. Explain the general concepts of blood flow, pressure development and resistance. -The CV is made up of the heart, blood vessels and the blood is the primary transport system in the body. It delivers nutrients, hormones, electrolytes, and oxygen to tissues while removing wastes and CO2. -Blood Flow = (F = deltaP/R) = The flow rate of blood through a vessel is directly proportional to the pressure gradient and inversely proportional to vascular resistance. -Pressure Development/Gradient = The difference in pressure between the beginning and end of a vessel. Blood flows from an area of HIGHER pressure to an area of LOWER pressure. The heart is the driving force for flow through a vessel, and as blood travels, the resistance in the vessels causes a drop in pressure. -Resistance = The measure of hindrance or opposition to blood flow, this is caused by friction. Flow rate decreases as resistance increases. This causes the heart to work hard to compensate. Three factors : 1.viscosity of blood. 2. Vessel length. 3. Vessel radius (most important). 2) Describe the basic concepts of auscultation. What are systolic and diastolic blood pressures? What happens in the cardiovascular system during systole and diastole? What is systemic mean arterial pressure (MAP)? Draw a homeostatic loop illustrating the response to a) elevated MAP; and b) reduced MAP. Present your data for MAP. Does it differ between men and women? Why or why not? -Auscultation = the technical term for listening to internal sounds of the body, using a stethoscope. It is Latin for to listen. -Systolic blood pressure is maximum pressure exerted in the arteries when blood is ejected into them. When heart is contracting and also the point where you start to hear murmurs. -Diastolic blood pressure is the minimum pressure within the arteries when blood is draining off into the rest of the vessels. When heart is relaxed. -Mean arterial pressure is the average pressure driving blood forward into the tissues throughout the cardiac cycle. It is not halfway between systole and diastole, it is closer to diastole. At resting heart rate, 2/3rds of the cardiac cycle is spent in diastole. -MAP does not differ between men and women because gender has no factors in deciding the outcome of mean arterial pressure. 3) Present your data (i.e. include an Excel figure suitable for a report) for the responses to postural changes. Explain what happens when posture changes from a supine to upright position. How do we detect the changes in MAP? What are the compensatory responses? Does blood pool in our legs when we are walking upright? Why or why not?
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-Switching to an initial upright tilt caused an increased in blood pressure. The force of gravity should exert and cause a large quantity of blood to be at the lower half of the body. A lower
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