Unit 4, Question 7 - AP® United States History 2003...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: AP® United States History 2003 Scoring Guidelines The materials included in these files are intended for use by AP teachers for course and exam preparation; permission for any other use must be sought from the Advanced Placement Program®. Teachers may reproduce them, in whole or in part, in limited quantities for noncommercial, face-to-face teaching purposes. This permission does not apply to any third-party copyrights contained herein. This material may not be mass distributed, electronically or otherwise. These materials and any copies made of them may not be resold, and the copyright notices must be retained as they appear here. These materials were produced by Educational Testing Service® (ETS®), which develops and administers the examinations of the Advanced Placement Program for the College Board. The College Board and Educational Testing Service (ETS) are dedicated to the principle of equal opportunity, and their programs, services, and employment policies are guided by that principle. The College Board is a national nonprofit membership association whose mission is to prepare, inspire, and connect students to college and opportunity. Founded in 1900, the association is composed of more than 4,300 schools, colleges, universities, and other educational organizations. Each year, the College Board serves over three million students and their parents, 22,000 high schools, and 3,500 colleges through major programs and services in college admissions, guidance, assessment, financial aid, enrollment, and teaching and learning. Among its best-known programs are the SAT ®, the PSAT/NMSQT®, and the Advanced Placement Program® ( AP®). The College Board is committed to the principles of equity and excellence, and that commitment is embodied in all of its programs, services, activities, and concerns. For further information, visit www.collegeboard.com Copyright © 2003 College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. College Board, Advanced Placement Program, AP, AP Vertical Teams, APCD, Pacesetter, Pre-AP, SAT, Student Search Service, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Entrance Examination Board. AP Central is a trademark owned by the College Entrance Examination Board. PSAT/NMSQT is a registered trademark jointly owned by the College Entrance Examination Board and the National Merit Scholarship Corporation. Educational Testing Service and ETS are registered trademarks of Educational Testing Service. Other products and services may be trademarks of their respective owners. For the College Board’s online home for AP professionals, visit AP Central at apcentral.collegeboard.com. AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2003 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1 1. Analyze the responses of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s administration to the problems of the Great Depression. How effective were these responses? How did they change the role of the federal government? Use the following documents and your knowledge of the period 1929-1941 to construct your essay. The 8-9 Essay: • contains a well-developed thesis that addresses the effectiveness of the Roosevelt administration’s responses to the problems of the Great Depression and how these responses changed the role of the federal government. • presents a strong analysis of several responses to the problems of the Great Depression, evaluates their effectiveness and discusses changes in the role of the federal government. • uses effectively a substantial number of documents. • supports thesis with substantial and relevant outside information. • may contain minor errors. • is clearly organized and well written. The 5-7 Essay: • contains a thesis that identifies the effectiveness of the Roosevelt administration’s responses to the problems of the Great Depression and provides some connection to the changing role of the federal government. • states some responses to the problems of the Great Depression with limited analysis of their effectiveness, and with some connection to the changing role of the federal government. • uses effectively some documents. • supports thesis with some outside information. • may have errors that do not seriously detract from the quality of the essay. • shows acceptable organization and writing; language errors do not interfere with the comprehension of the essay. The 2-4 Essay: • contains a limited or undeveloped thesis. • responds to the question in a general manner; simplistic treatment of responses to the problems of the Great Depression, and/or simplistic presentation on the changing role of the federal government. • merely refers to, quotes, or briefly cites documents. • contains little outside information or information that is inaccurate or irrelevant. • may have major errors. • may be poorly organized and/or written. The 0-1 Essay: • lacks a thesis or simply restates the question. • demonstrates an incompetent or inappropriate response. • has little or no understanding of the documents, or ignores them completely. • has substantial factual errors. • is poorly organized, and/or poorly written. The – Essay: • is completely off topic or blank. Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com. 2 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2003 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1 (cont’d) Document Information and Inferences Document A: Meridel Lesueur, New Masses, January, 1932 Document Information: • Many women are unemployed • Some forms of assistance are available • Fewer women than men seek assistance • Probably as many women suffer from poverty as men Document Inferences: • Women seem invisible in the Great Depression • Lack of attention to concerns of unemployed and poor women • Pre-New Deal assistance to unemployed and poor was not sufficient • Highlights urban unemployment Document B: Letter to Senator Robert Wagner, March 7, 1934 Document Information: • Fear of growing government power • Current policies promote socialism and communism • Current policies discourage business growth • Government supports labor's demands • Growing government involvement will be harmful to society Document Inferences: • Opposes New Deal policies and increased power of the federal government • Favors less government interference in the economy • The business community can respond to economic problems better than the government • Opposes the National Recovery Administration Document C: Cartoon, The Evening Star (Washington, D.C.), April 26, 1934 Document Information: • New Deal represents change, but not revolutionary change • Depicts development of the New Deal as a natural progression • New Deal established an abundance of federal agencies Document Inferences: • Cartoonist supportive of New Deal • The role of the federal government was expanded • Roosevelt tries to appease New Deal critics • A “brains trust” of academics played a leading role in the New Deal Document D: William Lloyd Garrison, Jr., “The Hand of Improvidence,” The Nation, November 14, 1934 Document Information: • New Deal was both a set of ideas and diverse programs • Some New Deal programs were at odds with others • Significant increase in national debt to support New Deal programs • Growth of the federal bureaucracy • New Deal programs also reflected Keynesian economic theory Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com. 3 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2003 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1 (cont’d) Document Inferences: • Critical of Keynesian theory of deficit spending • Suggests that New Deal programs are unrealistic and impractical • Some New Deal programs addressed economic problems and others slowed recovery • The scope of the federal government greatly expanded Document E: Poster for Social Security, 1935 Document Information: • Federal government will provide monthly checks to those 65 and over • Encourages people to apply for a Social Security number • Details eligibility for Social Security • Some workers are ineligible for Social Security Document Inferences: • Federal government assumes some responsibility for the economic well being of the citizens • Ideas of Dr. Francis Townsend are embedded within Social Security program • Initially, Social Security had limited effectiveness as it did not address the needs of some Americans Document F: Charles Evans Hughes, majority opinion, Schechter v. United States, 1935 Document Information: • Case examined the codes of hours and wages for workers • The case refers to workers who are not employed in interstate commerce • The court rules against the expansion of federal government power Document Inferences: • Court invalidates the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) because it gave the federal government powers of economic regulation that could not be justified under the interstate commerce clause • Court rules that federal government could not regulate the economy in a significant way • Decision was perceived as threatening to other New Deal economic measures Document G: NBC radio broadcast, John L. Lewis, December 13, 1936 Document Information: • Lack of acceptable working conditions leads to labor unrest • Employers oppose collective bargaining • Accuses large companies, such as US Steel and GM, of breaking existing labor laws • Workers have the right to unionize and to bargain collectively Document Inferences: • Blames employers and companies for recent “widespread labor unrest” • Supports the National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act), a landmark legislation for organized labor • Anticipates outbreak of sit down strikes Document H: “The New Deal in Review” editorial in The New Republic, May 20, 1940 Document Information: • New Deal changed the role of government • New Deal created many new federal agencies and a more efficient executive branch • Judicial branch revitalized by legislation and especially by new appointments Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com. 4 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2003 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1 (cont’d) Document Inferences: • Strong support of New Deal and the expanded role of the federal government • The country will be better in the future because of the New Deal • Federal government responsive to popular will • Conservative Supreme Court had opposed early New Deal programs • Shift of Supreme Court to support New Deal Document I: “The Roosevelt Record,” editorial in The Crisis, November 1940 Document Information: • Roosevelt administration attempted to include African Americans in New Deal programs • Federal government continued segregation in some programs • African Americans now view the federal government as more supportive Document Inferences: • The New Deal created employment opportunities for African Americans throughout the nation • Long standing patterns of discrimination and segregation persisted • African Americans voted for Roosevelt and the Democratic Party • The Roosevelt administration was effective in garnering the support of African Americans despite its limitations Document J: Chart, Unemployment of nonfarm workers by percentage and number Document Information: • Unemployment spiked in early 1920s, then peaked in 1933, and then rose again in 1937-38 • Numbers of unemployed (12.8 million) increased to nearly 40 percent by 1933 • Does not include farm workers in unemployment figures • Significant decline in unemployment after 1938 Document Inferences: • Shows relatively low unemployment during most of the 1920s • “Roosevelt Recession” of 1937-38 caused by reduction in federal government spending • World War II had greater impact on reducing unemployment than New Deal programs Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com. 5 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2003 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1 (cont’d) Commonly Seen Outside Information relief, recovery, reform First New Deal, Second New Deal New Deal as continuation of Progressivism Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Rural Electrification Administration (REA) Wagner National Labor Relations Act National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) “sit down strikes” Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) Herbert Hoover “rugged individualism” Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC) Banking, Business and Stock Market “run on bank” bank holiday stock market crash Black Tuesday (Oct. 29, 1929) buy on margin Smoot-Hawley Tariff Emergency Banking Act Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) Glass-Steagall Act Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) Fair Labor Standards Act “Roosevelt Recession” (1937-38) laissez-faire “deficit spending” “prime the pump” Huey Long “Share Our Wealth” Father Coughlin Dr. Francis Townsend Eleanor Roosevelt Frances Perkins Mary McLeod Bethune “brains trust”: Rexford Tugwell, Raymond Moley, Adolf Berle Harold Ickes Harry Hopkins Social Security Aid to dependent children, disabled Unemployment compensation Workplace contributions “welfare state” Works Progress Administration (WPA) Federal Writers’ Project Federal Theatre Project Federal Music Project National Youth Administration (NYA) Agricultural distress Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) “Dust Bowl” John Steinbeck, The Grapes of Wrath Unemployment Hoovervilles Bonus March “forgotten man” Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) Civil Works Administration (CWA) Public Works Administration (PWA) Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) “court packing” plan Hugo L. Black World War II military preparedness “fireside chats” “Hundred Days” National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) National Recovery Administration (NRA) codes Section 7a Blue Eagle, “We Do Our Part” Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com. 6 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2003 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 2 Standards Evaluate the extent to which the Articles of Confederation were effective in solving the problems that confronted the new nation. The 8-9 Essay • Contains a clear, well-developed thesis that evaluates the extent to which the government under the Articles was effective in solving the problems confronting the new nation • Supports the thesis with substantial, specific, relevant information • Has substantive analysis explicitly evaluating both the effectiveness and ineffectiveness of the government under the Articles; treatment need not be balanced • May contain minor errors • Is well-organized and well-written The 5 -7 Essay • Presents a thesis that evaluates the extent to which the government under the Articles was effective in solving the problems confronting the new nation • Supports the thesis with some specific, relevant information • Has some analysis explicitly evaluating the effectiveness and/or ineffectiveness of the Articles of Confederation; may deal with only one or the other • May contain errors that do not seriously detract from the quality of the essay • Has acceptable organization and acceptable writing The 2-4 Essay • May lack a thesis, or have a partially developed thesis • Provides few relevant facts, or lists facts with little or no application to the thesis • May contain mostly generalizations; or has limited analysis evaluating the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of the Articles of Confederation • May contain major errors that detract from the essay • May be poorly organized and/or poorly written The 0-1 Essay • Lacks a thesis or simply restates the question • Demonstrates an incompetent or inappropriate response • Contains substantial factual errors • Is poorly organized and/or poorly written The — Essay • Is completely off-topic or blank Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com. 7 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2003 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 2 (cont’d) Fact Sheet Evaluate the extent to which the [government under the] Articles of Confederation were [was] effective in solving the problems that confronted the new nation. A. WAYS IN WHICH THE GOVERNMENT UNDER THE ARTICLES WAS EFFECTIVE IN SOLVING PROBLEMS CONFRONTING THE NEW NATION (Although the Articles were not technically ratified until 1781, one can assume that answers from 1777 onward should be considered acceptable. Although the question does not use the words “government under the Articles,” we presume that is implicit because the document itself, the Articles, did not solve many problems and that would pose a very limiting question.) Facts More Commonly Found in Student Papers: • Recognized the desire of the states for limited central government • Got most states to surrender claims to lands west of the Appalachians by 1781 that would become the source of revenues and future states • Despite weaknesses, the central government did keep the Confederation together until it was replaced and did keep the nation out of war • Government attempted to deal with the problem of foreign and domestic debts • Land Ordinance of 1785 provided for the sale of public lands in the West; provisions included surveying land, and providing for public education • NW Ordinance of 1787 established territorial procedures for the admission of the five states as equal and prohibited slavery in that territory • Waged the Revolutionary War • Negotiated the Treaty of Paris ending the war with Great Britain • Authorized the meeting of the Constitutional Convention in 1787 and put the proposed document before the states for ratification (even though provision for ratification by 9 states violated Article 13 – the requirement for unanimous approval of any changes.) Facts Less Commonly Found in Student Papers: • Negotiated mutual defense treaty with France • Debt was $41.2 million, including a foreign debt of $7.9 million • The government succeeded in reducing much of the domestic debt to about 6 million although increasing the international debt to 10.2 million • Established a bureaucracy that continued after 1789 and was incorporated into the new government under the Constitution, namely Departments of War, Finance, and Foreign Affairs, and the Post Office • Land Ordinance 1785 provided for the sale of public lands in the West at $1/acre with a 640-acre minimum; about $760,000 would be received during the Confederation Period. Provisions included surveying land along the lines used in establishing New England Towns (square mile sections divided into 640 acre sections, with a section set aside for schools.) • Negotiated commercial treaties with France, Sweden, Holland, Prussia, and Morocco and borrowed money from Holland Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com. 8 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2003 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 2 (cont’d) B. WAYS IN WHICH THE GOVERNMENT UNDER THE ARTICLES WAS LESS EFFECTIVE, OR INEFFECTIVE, IN SOLVING PROBLEMS CONFRONTING THE NEW NATION Facts More Commonly Found in Student Papers: • Decentralized government with limited sovereignty; only a league of friendship and therefore limited in its effectiveness • Most actions by Congress required nine votes and amendments required unanimous vote • Articles lacked a provision for independently raising revenues by duties or through taxation without the consent of the states, which twice failed to approve such amendments • Was able to obtain only a limited amount of the taxes requisitioned from the States • Lack of an Executive Department in the government to provide leadership • Failed to halt tariff conflicts between the states — no control of interstate commerce • Failed to halt the abuses of paper money • Central government could not raise an army or establish a navy on its own or call forth the militia and therefore could not provide adequate protection in the Northwest or the South or help Massachusetts quell Shays’ Rebellion • Lack of an independent Judiciary • Issued a currency during the revolution that became highly inflated (“Continentals”), nearly worthless, and eventually required the government to issue new certificates to repay domestic debts • Failed to halt tariff conflicts between the states, particularly by Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Pennsylvania, and Georgia — no control of interstate commerce • Despite commercial treaties, the government generally failed to establish a strong, effective diplomatic presence in international affairs Facts Less Commonly Found in Student Papers • Jay-Gardoqui Treaty accepted Spain’s closure of the lower Mississippi to American ships in exchange for a commercial treaty favorable to New England, which aroused great opposition within the Southern and Western regions for its favoritism • Unable to get Britain to reopen trade with the West Indies or to restore much of the imports into Britain (notably rice, indigo, and tobacco), while, at the same time, flooding the States with manufactured goods to the detriment of American producers. Result was huge balance of trade deficit, deflation and depression during the 1785-87 period • Unable to get passage of navigation laws to limit ships from nations not having commercial treaties with the U.S., Great Britain in particular • No resolution with England regarding debts owed between Americans and the English, the treatment of Loyalists, the economic losses due to the more than 50,000 slaves who left with the British, and British provocations along the borders and their encouragement of Indian attacks there; western territories and southern states were vulnerable, especially Georgia • No provision for admitting new states other than Canada and other existing British colonies • Failed to halt the abuses of paper money, particularly by Georgia, North Carolina, New Jersey, and especially Rhode Island; New York, South Carolina, and Pennsylvania handled theirs satisfactorily • Unable to foster any real sense of nationalism, although a nationalist group does eventually emerge that engineered the calling of the Constitutional Convention Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com. 9 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2003 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 3 In what ways did developments in transportation bring about economic and social change in the United States in the period 1820-1860? The 8-9 Essay • • • • • Contains a clear, well-developed thesis that addresses economic and social change brought about by developments in transportation from 1820 to 1860 Supports the thesis with considerable relevant historical information Provides effective analysis of both economic and social change over time; treatment may be uneven May contain minor errors Is well organized and well written The 5 -7 Essay • • • • • Contains a thesis that partially addresses economic and social change brought about by developments in transportation from 1820 to 1860 Supports the thesis with some relevant historical information Provides some analysis of economic and social change; treatment of one category may be very limited May contain errors that do not seriously detract from the quality of the essay Has acceptable organization and writing The 2-4 Essay • • • • • May contain a confused or unfocused thesis or simply paraphrases the question Provides little relevant historical information May focus on only one category of change or address only one transportation development with little or no analysis May contain major errors; often errors are outside the time period May be poorly organized and/or written The 0-1 Essay • • • • Lacks a thesis or simply restates the question Demonstrates an incompetent or inappropriate response Contains substantial factual errors Is poorly organized and/or poorly written The — Essay • Is completely off-topic or blank Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com. 10 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2003 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 3 (cont’d) TRANSPORTATION DEVELOPMENTS: • Unpaved roads • Paved turnpikes (toll roads)1790s; advances in network of roads 1840-60; stagecoaches • National Road (1811-38) • Overland trails (Oregon mapped 1836, Great Migration begins 1843, Santa Fe: US survey of trail authorized 1825; Mormon 1846) • Canal building: full effect felt in the 1820s and 1830s. (Little canal construction in east by the 1830s, went on in the west until 1850s) • Erie Canal (1817-25: 350 miles) • Steamboat (Fulton 1807; 700+ steamboats on Miss. & Ohio Rivers early 1830s) • Clipper ships • Steamships (1840s-1850s) • Railroads (beginning in 1830s); by 1860s, approximately 30,000 miles of track, inc. 9,280 in South; 1829 Baltimore & Ohio nation’s first RR with 13 mi. track; cost of transp. down 95% while speed up 500%. • Pony Express (1859) NOT IN TIME PERIOD: • Transcontinental RR constructed • RR’s on Great Plains (effects on Plains Indians/buffalo slaughter/cattle drives/cowboys) • Henry Ford/automobile • Gilded Age tycoons (Rockefeller/Carnegie) • steel rails • electric trolleys/suburbanization ECONOMIC CHANGE: • Market Revolution: emergence of national economy • Steamboats and canals reduced freight rates to 1/10 of overland rates • Cheap land/preemption/ speculation • Demand for agricultural commodities; Ohio, Indiana, Illinois become the breadbasket • Extended slavery • Plantations in the Old Southwest; not many small commercial communities • With advent of Erie Canal, the value of farm products in western New York and the Ohio Valley more than doubled • Trade relationship tighter between New England and the Old Northwest; hurts trade relationship between the Old Northwest and the South. The East provides capital and markets. New York is favored over New Orleans. Change in Mississippi River traffic • Emergence of industrialization in Northeast, i.e. Lowell Factory system • 1840s — increase in exports and by the 1850s American farmers are becoming more competitive in the world market • Gibbons v. Ogden (1824); Charles River Bridge case (1837) • Maysville Road veto (1830) • Clay’s American System (internal improvements, banks, protective tariff) • Gadsden Purchase (1853) • Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) — Stephen Douglas • Bessemer Process for steel-making 1847-56 • California Gold Rush 1849 • Panics of 1837 and 1857 • Manifest Destiny SOCIAL CHANGE: • Urbanization: poverty in cities leading to social reform movements • Urbanization (i.e. Cincinnati [“Porkopolis”]) • Westward migration (Mormons, Whitmans) • Extension of slavery • New Englanders going into old Northwest; they bring with them a zeal of orderly community development and an interest in education • Old Southwest control by the gentry in terms of politics and religion • Admission of new states • Immigration (labor sources Irish and Germans); population shift westward • Dispersion (westward movement) and concentration (urbanization) of settlement is dependant on transportation facilities • Lack of scientific agriculture and the stripping of natural resources. • Squatters on land • Absentee ownership of land • Specialization in agriculturecommercial agriculture over subsistence • Chicago-rail center and agricultural distributor to the West • Mountain men/missionaries/newspapermen • Lowell Factory System (provides job opportunities; mill girls) • Indian wars and removal • Gold Rush migration • Manifest Destiny Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com. 11 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2003 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 4 Evaluate the impact of the Civil War on political and economic developments in TWO of the following regions: the South, the North, the West. Focus your answer on the period between 1865 and 1900. The 8-9 Essay • Contains a clear, well-developed thesis and evaluates the impact of the Civil War on political and economic developments in two regions, covering the period 1865 to 1900 • Supports the thesis with substantial, specific, and relevant information • Presents a reasonably balanced treatment that effectively evaluates the impact of the Civil War on the political and economic developments of two regions • May contain minor errors • Is well-organized and well-written The 5-7 Essay • Presents a thesis, which may be partially developed, and evaluates the impact of the Civil War on political and economic developments in two regions, covering the period 1865 to 1900 • Supports the thesis with some specific, relevant information • Has limited and/or imbalanced treatment of the impact of the Civil War on political and economic developments in two regions • May contain errors that do not seriously detract from the overall quality of the essay • Has acceptable organization and writing The 2-4 Essay • Contains a confused or undeveloped thesis that may not cover the entire time period 1865 to 1900 • Provides few relevant facts and little or no evaluation • May address the political and economic developments in only one region OR may address only one development in two regions • May contain major errors • May be poorly organized and/or written The 0-1 Essay • Lacks a thesis or simply restates the question • Demonstrates an incompetent or inappropriate response • Contains substantial factual errors • Is poorly organized and/or poorly written The — Essay • Is completely off-topic or blank Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com. 12 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2003 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 4 (cont’d) Evaluate the impact of the Civil War on political and economic developments in TWO of the following regions: The South, the North, the West. Focus your answer on the period between 1865 and 1900. The South Political Developments - Economic Developments Political dominance of the North Supremacy of federal government over states established Issues of nullification, secession, states’ rights settled for the time being - 3.5 M slaves freed - Property losses and damage - Labor force needed for plantations - Tenancy and sharecropping - Crop lien system - Contract labor system - Migration of African-Americans to N&W - New South-Henry Grady - Investments by Northerners - Growth of railway system in the South - Growth of industry in the South - Birmingham-Steel - Memphis-Lumber - Richmond-Tobacco - Johnson’s Reconstruction Plan Radical Republicans/ Radical Reconstruction Abolition of slavery-13th Amendment - Freedman’s Bureau (March 1865) Black Codes Reconstruction Acts of 1867-Military Districts - scalawags and carpetbaggers 14th, 15th Amendments Ku Klux Klan – Nathan Bedford Forrest White supremacy - Disenfranchisement of African-Americans(e.g. literacy tests, poll taxes, grandfather clauses) Election of 1876/Compromise of 1877 - Agricultural economy - Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)-Separate but equal - Deflation - Jim Crow Laws Segregation Lynching Redeemers/Bourbon Redeemers - - GA, NC, SC-Textiles Infrequently seen: Oath of allegiance Increased potential representation of southern states as a result of the freeing of slaves Civil Rights Acts (1866, 1875) African-American officeholders (e.g. Blanche K. Bruce, Hiram Revels) Force Acts (1870)-Attempt to put down Klan Amnesty Act (1872) Booker T. Washington-Atlanta Compromise speech (1895) Civil Rights cases of 1883 Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com. 13 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2003 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 4 (cont’d) The North Political Developments - Economic Developments Political dominance of the North Established supremacy of federal government over states Impeachment of Andrew Johnson - Radical Republicans Thaddeus Stevens, Charles Sumner, Benjamin Wade Republicans—“waving the bloody shirt” Election of 1868-US Grant Scandals—Whiskey Ring and Credit Mobilier Election of 1876- Hayes/Tilden Compromise of 1877 Rutherford B. Hayes Gilded Age New immigrants Party bosses and political machines-Boss Tweed Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) Impetus for women’s suffrage movement - Beginnings of Progressivism - Infrequently seen: - Strengthened principles of American Democracy - Civil War as a catalyst to transform America into industrial nation - Laissez-faire & pro-business government policies-tariffs, RR subsidies and land grants - Morrill Tariff Act (1861) - Homestead Act (1862) - Morrill Land Grant Act (1862) - Pacific Railway Act (1862) - Panic of 1873 & 1893 - Greenbacks/silver issues - Plentiful capital, resources, labor - Factories - More complex business organizations - Growth of industry-Steel, Oil - Growth of railroads—Transcontinental - Captains of Industry/ Robber Barons - Growing population/AfricanAmerican migration to north and west - Immigration-labor force - Protective tariffs - Land grants to railroads - Urbanization Infrequently seen: - New inventions and laborsaving technologies - Labor Unions—NLU, Knights, AFL Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com. 14 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2003 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 4 (cont’d) The West Political Developments - Settlement of West became important -Federal troops available for enforcing resettlement of Native Americans - Homestead Act (1862)-“sodbusters” - Indian Wars - National Grange Movement – 1868Oliver H. Kelley - Government subsidies - Interstate Commerce Act (1887) - Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) - Free silver movement - Populists - Beginnings of Progressivism Infrequently seen: - Ocala Platform (1890) - Supreme Court cases: Munn v. Illinois (1877) reversed by Wabash v. Illinois (1886) - Omaha Platform (1892) - Turner’s Frontier Thesis Economic Developments - Construction of railroads-Impact of settlement, buffalo, Native Americans, cattle drives, opening of eastern markets - Cattle industry/Cattle drives-cowboys - New inventions and technologies: Barbed wire-Joseph Glidden (1874) - Farmers’ alliances - Farmers’ cooperatives - African-American migration westward - Mail order catalogs Infrequently seen: - Gold and silver mining Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com. 15 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2003 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 5 The 8-9 Essay • • • • • Contains a clear, well-developed thesis that compares/contrasts U.S. society in the 1920s and the 1950s in two of the three categories Develops the thesis with considerable, relevant supporting information about two of the three categories concerning U.S. society in the 1920s and the 1950s Provides effective analysis of both time periods in both categories, though may treat one time period or one category with less depth than the others May contain minor errors that do not detract from the overall quality of the essay Essay is well organized and well written The 5 -7 Essay • • • • • • Contains a thesis that may be only partially developed that compares/contrasts U.S. society in the 1920s and the 1950s in two of the three categories Supports the thesis with some accurate information concerning U.S. society in the 1920s and the 1950s in two of the three categories Provides some analysis of both time periods in both categories, but may be imbalanced in its coverage May contain errors that do not seriously detract from the quality of the essay The essay has acceptable organization and writing The 2-4 Essay • • • • Contains a confused or unfocused thesis or simply paraphrases the question Provides few relevant facts, or lists facts with little or no application to the thesis Has little or no analysis May contain major errors The 0-1 Essay • • • • May paraphrase the question or lacks a thesis Demonstrates an incompetent or inappropriate response Has little or no understanding of the question May contain substantial factual errors Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com. 16 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2003 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 5 (cont’d) Compare and contrast U.S. society in the 1920's and the 1950's with respect to TWO of the following: - Race relations - Role of women - Consumerism Race Relations, 1920s Tulsa Riot, 1921 Re-emergence of the Ku Klux Klan, lynching Growing oppression of Jim Crowism Marcus Garvey and repatriation, Back to Africa, Universal Negro Improvement Association Black Star Line Black migration to North — black population in the north more than doubles Anti-immigration laws; Emergency Quota Act, 1921; National Origins Act, 1924 Sacco and Vanzetti Segregated schools, neighborhoods evidence of continued discrimination Lowest-paying jobs; blacks barred from most labor unions Harlem Renaissance, Langston Hughes, Cotton Club, Zora Neale Hurston Jazz music in urban areas bring blacks and whites together — Bessie Smith, Duke Ellington, Count Basie, Louis Armstrong (last three, still viable in the 50s) Race Relations in 1950s Impact of the integration of the military and Truman’s Committee on Civil Rights De jure vs. de facto segregation Brown vs. Topeka Board of Education (1954) — Thurgood Marshall “all deliberate speed” Rosa Parks MLK and his advocacy of nonviolent protest Montgomery Bus Boycott Bus desegregation ruled unconstitutional (Dec. 1956) Civil Rights Voting Act of 1957 Southern Christian Leadership Conference — fights against segregation and protection of the vote White Citizens Councils and the KKK defend segregation as a way of life Gov. Faubus and Little Rock: President Eisenhower sends in troops Medgar Evers Emmitt Till James Baldwin Nation of Islam Emergence of Malcolm X at the end of the 1950s Rock music integrates youth world (Elvis Presley) Motown Sports — Willie Mays, Hank Aaron, Joe Louis NBA — Chuck Cooper (Boston Celtics 1952), Bill Russell Paul Robeson (blacklisted) Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com. 17 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2003 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 5 (cont’d) Role of Women, 1920s 19th Amendment, 1920 League of Women Voters Equal Rights Amendment introduced WCTU and women smokers Aimee Semple McPherson Involvement in the Temperance Movement leading to Prohibition Impact of the “Roaring Twenties” Radical change in dress and behaviors (i.e., smoking and drinking), reversal of Victorian values, “New” (or Modern) Woman Flappers Clara Bow, the “It” girl Number of working women increases (mostly in garment industry and domestic service) Automobility New dating and mating rituals Jazz and nightclubs in northern cities Speakeasies Margaret Sanger, National Birth Control League Role of Women, 1950s Return to traditional gender roles after WWII Role of television in creating stereotypes in 1950s Father Knows Best, Leave It To Beaver, Donna Reed, June Cleaver, Alice Kramden, Ozzie and Harriett Women as homemakers Importance of conformity Baby boom Divorce rate drops The 1950s cult of domesticity The problem that has no name Oveta Culp Hobby — Ike’s Cabinet (HEW) — exception to the rule Rosa Parks — the empowerment of women Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com. 18 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2003 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 5 (cont’d) Consumerism, 1920s Effect of “Age of Prosperity” Laissez-faire conservatism Andrew Mellon tax cuts Harding — Normalcy American System — Counter-offensive by management against labor Unrestrained capitalism — “invisible hand” of the market economy Production of consumer goods increases Advent of revolving credit, 1920s Installment buying and its impact on consumption Modern advertising Mass marketing of radio Rise of automated, modern appliances (makes things easier for women) Leisure time Movies Rise of spectator sports (mass consumption of sports) — Babe Ruth and The Dempsey-Tunney “Million-dollar-gate” fight Sinclair Lewis, Main Street, Babbitt F. Scott Fitzgerald, Great Gatsby Assembly line automobiles, Henry Ford Scientific management, Frederick Taylor Bruce Barton, The Man Nobody Knows Margin buying Stock Market Crash and the end of consumer confidence Consumerism 1950s Post WWII economic boom — war shortages created vast market for consumer goods Prosperity (though not shared by most African Americans) Expansion of interstate highway system (spurred automobile growth and movement) “Keeping up with the Joneses” Drive-ins — speed and convenience, McDonalds Spread of shopping centers Youth-spending on records, radios, cosmetics, cars exploding teen market Barbie, Mr. Potato Head Higher educated workforce led to greater prosperity Post-war boom in housing and automobile industry G.I. Bill makes home buying easier Affordable housing more available Levittown Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com. 19 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2003 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 5 (cont’d) The Man in the Grey Flannel Suit Emergence of suburbs and suburban lifestyle Impact of television Advertising targets women to urge them to buy latest appliances and labor-saving devices Availability of frozen and other convenience foods Copyright © 2003 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com. 20 ...
View Full Document

Ask a homework question - tutors are online