Unit 4, Question 10

Unit 4, Question 10 - AP® United States History 2005...

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Unformatted text preview: AP® United States History 2005 Scoring Guidelines The College Board: Connecting Students to College Success The College Board is a not-for-profit membership association whose mission is to connect students to college success and opportunity. Founded in 1900, the association is composed of more than 4,700 schools, colleges, universities, and other educational organizations. Each year, the College Board serves over three and a half million students and their parents, 23,000 high schools, and 3,500 colleges through major programs and services in college admissions, guidance, assessment, financial aid, enrollment, and teaching and learning. Among its best-known programs are the SAT®, the PSAT/NMSQT®, and the Advanced Placement Program® (AP®). The College Board is committed to the principles of excellence and equity, and that commitment is embodied in all of its programs, services, activities, and concerns. Copyright © 2005 by College Board. All rights reserved. College Board, AP Central, APCD, Advanced Placement Program, AP, AP Vertical Teams, Pre-AP, SAT, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Entrance Examination Board. Admitted Class Evaluation Service, CollegeEd, Connect to college success, MyRoad, SAT Professional Development, SAT Readiness Program, and Setting the Cornerstones are trademarks owned by the College Entrance Examination Board. PSAT/NMSQT is a registered trademark of the College Entrance Examination Board and National Merit Scholarship Corporation. Other products and services may be trademarks of their respective owners. Permission to use copyrighted College Board materials may be requested online at: http://www.collegeboard.com/inquiry/cbpermit.html. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP Central is the official online home for the AP Program and Pre-AP: apcentral.collegeboard.com. AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2005 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1—Document-Based Question To what extent did the American Revolution fundamentally change American society? In your answer, be sure to address the political, social, and economic effects of the Revolution in the period from 1775 to 1800. The 8–9 Essay • Contains a well-developed thesis that examines the extent to which the American Revolution fundamentally changed the political, social, and economic aspects of American society from 1775 to 1800. • Supports the thesis with an effective analysis of the political, social and economic effects of the American Revolution on American society from 1775 to 1800. o Examines all three effects (political, economic, social); may be imbalanced. o References to the political, social, and economic effects may be implicit. • Effectively uses a substantial number of documents. • Supports the thesis with substantial and relevant outside information. • May contain minor errors. • Is clearly organized and well written. The 5–7 Essay • Contains a thesis that addresses the extent to which the American Revolution fundamentally changed the political, social, and economic aspects of American society between 1775 and 1800. • Has some limited analysis of the political, social, and economic effects of the American Revolution on American society from 1775 to 1800. o May only address two of the three effects or may be imbalanced. o References to the political, social, and economic effects may be implicit. • Effectively uses some documents. • Supports thesis with some relevant outside information. • May have errors that do not seriously detract from the quality of the essay. • Shows acceptable organization and writing; language errors do not interfere with the comprehension of the essay. The 2–4 Essay • Contains a limited or undeveloped thesis. • Deals with the question in a general, simplistic, or superficial manner. • Merely paraphrases, quotes, or briefly cites documents. • Contains little outside information, or information that is inaccurate or irrelevant. • May contain major errors. • May be poorly organized and/or poorly written. The 0–1 Essay • Lacks a thesis or simply restates the question. • Exhibits inadequate or incorrect understanding of the question. • Has little or no understanding of the documents or ignores them completely. • May contain substantial factual errors. • Is poorly organized and/or poorly written. The — Essay • Is blank or completely off task. Copyright © 2005 by College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 2 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2005 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1 Document Information and Inferences Document A: Woodcut of Patriot woman, Marblehead, MA, 1779 Information: • Shows woman holding a musket and powder horn. • Fort and flag in the background. • Woman is wearing a tricorn hat. Inferences: • Women participated in the American Revolution. • Women’s roles were expanded during the American Revolution; women performed tasks previously done solely by men. • Hints at the potential for revolutionary change in women’s roles. Potential outside information triggered by document: Deborah Sampson Votes for women in some states (briefly) Daughters of Liberty Republican motherhood Molly Pitcher Camp followers Home manufacturing Document B: Pennsylvania Packet editorial, 1779 Information: • Anti-Tory references. • Calls for banishment of all Tories. • Equates life in England with slavery. • Calls for America to be a land of freemen. Inferences: • Not all Americans supported the American Revolution. • Tories (Loyalists) were targets of attack; some left the country, others fought on the side of the British. • Some viewed British rule as oppressive (tyrannical). • Some Americans viewed America as independent prior to the end of the American Revolution. • Patriots believed in equality and creating a society different from Britain. • Far reaching social, political, and economic change was anticipated. Potential outside information triggered by document: Loyalists Treaty of Paris, 1783 Declaration of Independence Tarring and feathering Confiscation of Loyalist property Compensation of Loyalists Loyalist exodus Egalitarianism Copyright © 2005 by College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 3 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2005 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1 Document Information and Inferences (continued) Document C: Message to Congress from the Chickasaw Chiefs, July 1783 Information: • Expresses happiness that the war is over. • Calls for a conference between Americans and Chickasaw. • Expresses a desire for friendship between Chickasaw and Americans “brothers.” Inferences: • Native Americans fought on the side of the British. • The American Revolution was over. • Native Americans were concerned about how they would be treated by the United States. • Native Americans hoped that the end of hostility would begin a new and amicable relationship with the United States. • Far-reaching changes were anticipated in the relationship between Indian nations and the United States. Potential outside information triggered by document: Treaty of Paris, 1783 Northwest tribes Battle of Fallen Timbers “Mad” Anthony Wayne Treaty of Greenville, 1795 British occupation of northwestern posts (forts) Acculturation (assimilation) policy under Washington Document D: Statutes at Large of Virginia, 1786 Information: • No person should be forced to support a religion. • All men should have freedom to practice their religion. Inferences: • There was movement toward freedom of religion and separation of church and state. • Religious diversity existed in the United States. • Connects to egalitarian ideals of the revolution. • There was evidence of far-reaching social change with the disestablishment of religion. Potential outside information triggered by document: Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom Thomas Jefferson, James Madison Separation of church and state Disestablishment of the Anglican Church Movement toward religious freedom Bill of Rights (1st amendment) Baptists, Methodists, and other rising denominations Copyright © 2005 by College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 4 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2005 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1 Document Information and Inferences (continued) Document E: United Indian Nations, Speech at the Confederate Council, 1786 Information: • Expresses disappointment at not being included in the peace treaty. • Observes that the conclusion of the war would have promoted friendship. • Expresses displeasure at separate treaties with different nations. • Complains of neglect of a general council with the different nations. Inferences: • Native Americans were not included in the making of the Treaty of Paris. • The United States was pursuing a divisive policy of separate treaties with individual tribes. • Native Americans were apprehensive about relations with the United States. Potential outside information triggered by document: Treaty of Paris of 1783 Northwest tribes Battle of Fallen Timbers “Mad” Anthony Wayne Treaty of Greenville, 1795 British occupation of northwestern posts (forts) Acculturation (assimilation) policy under Washington Weakness of the Articles of Confederation Document F: Medal of the Philadelphia Society for the Promotion of Agriculture, 1786 Information: • Portrays farming as an important occupation. • Shows man plowing the field with symbolic figure looking on. Inferences: • The United States was predominantly an agricultural society of small farmers. • There was controversy over the economic future of the United States (agricultural vs. commercial/manufacturing). • A symbolic figure looks on approvingly (suggesting abundance, fertility, liberty). • Supports the Jeffersonian notion of agrarian republicanism based on virtuous yeoman farmers. • Economically independent yeoman farmers are ideal citizens. Potential outside information triggered by document: Predominance of agriculture U.S. no longer bound by the mercantilist system Cotton gin Revolutionary spirit of egalitarianism Jefferson/Hamilton debate (agriculture vs. commerce) Hamilton’s economic plan (funding, assumption, bank, protective tariff, excise taxes) Abundance of land for agricultural expansion Elimination of the Proclamation Line of 1763 by the war Copyright © 2005 by College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 5 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2005 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1 Document Information and Inferences (continued) Document G: Letter from Abigail Adams to Thomas Jefferson, 1787 Information: • Accounts of unrest in Massachusetts are not exaggerated. • Functions of government have been stopped in several counties. • Those causing discord are ignorant, restless desperados, and multitudes follow them. • Grievances of those causing unrest are imagined rather than real. • Some of those causing unrest want paper currency and/or equal distribution of property. Inferences: • There was serious civil unrest in some areas of the United States. • Common people could easily be won over to radical causes. • Shays’ Rebellion was in progress. • Adams feared the intentions of the common people and opposed paper money and equal distribution of property. • Government might not have been strong enough to suppress rebellion and guarantee stability • Adams’s perspective discounts problems leading to agitation as delusional. • The letter suggests class differences on economic issues. Potential outside information triggered by document: “Remember the ladies” Newburgh Conspiracy Decline in value of currency (continentals) Annapolis Convention Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia Articles of Confederation (weaknesses) Republicanism vs. democracy Popular uprisings: Shays, Fries, Prosser, and the Whiskey rebellion Hamilton’s economic plan (funding, assumption, bank, protective tariff, excise taxes) Jefferson’s defense of civil unrest Document H: An Ordinance for the Government of the Territory of the United States Northwest of the River Ohio, 1787 Information: • Bans slavery and involuntary servitude in the territory, except in punishment of crimes. • Fugitive slaves may be lawfully returned to masters. Inferences: • White settlers were moving to the West. • Opposition to slavery was growing in the North. • The North did not oppose the return of fugitive slaves. • A system of government was devised for new territories. • Banning of slavery was evidence of fundamental social change. Copyright © 2005 by College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 6 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2005 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1 Document Information and Inferences (continued) Potential outside information triggered by document: Northwest Ordinance (procedures for territories becoming states) Land Ordinances of 1784 and 1785 Township system of survey Three-fifths compromise Potential for conflict between white settlers and Native Americans Treaty of Paris of 1783 Fugitive Slave Law Slave trade compromise Document I: James Madison in The Federalist, number 51, 1788 Information: • Government must have the power to control people. • Abuses of government must be controlled. • Control of both the people and the government is necessary because of human nature. • Government must have necessary measures to control itself. Inferences: • The Constitution granted the federal government more power than the Articles of Confederation. • There was also fear of government having too little power. • Constitution limited the power of the federal government. • Factions balanced each other. • Checks on both government and the people are needed. • Madison supported ratification. Potential outside information triggered by document: Constitution Factions Federalist papers Separation of powers Checks and balances Bill of Rights Federalists vs. antifederalists Compact theory of government First American Party System Articles of Confederation Federalism Loose vs. strict constructionism Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions Federalists vs. Jeffersonian Republicans Document J: Molly Wallace, valedictory address, Young Ladies’ Academy of Pennsylvania, 1792 Information: • Friendly encouragements allow Wallace to overcome apprehension due to sex, youth, and inexperience. • Some have questioned the appropriateness of public appearances by women. • Women seem destined to the “domestic situation” by nature and custom. • Wallace defends female oratory against its critics. • Public speaking is the best way to improve the quality of oratory. • Wallace rhetorically asks why, if women are not denied the right to read, they should be denied the right to speak. Copyright © 2005 by College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 7 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2005 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1 Document Information and Inferences (continued) Inferences: • There is increased discussion of educational opportunities for women. • Women began to challenge the notion of separate spheres. • The American Revolution had not greatly altered society’s perception of the role of women. • Women were trying to become more active in public life. • Juxtapose with Document A to demonstrate failure of anticipated changes to materialize. Potential outside information triggered by document: Separate spheres Cult of domesticity Benjamin Rush The academy movement Republican motherhood Mary Wollstonecraft Educational reform Copyright © 2005 by College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 8 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2005 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 2 Compare and contrast the ways in which economic development affected politics in Massachusetts and Virginia in the period from 1607 to 1750. The 8–9 Essay • Contains a clear, well-developed thesis both comparing and contrasting the ways in which economic developments affected Massachusetts and Virginia politics between 1607 and 1750. • Provides substantial, relevant information in support of the thesis. • Provides effective analysis of the ways economic development affected politics in the two colonies; may not cover both colonies equally. • May contain minor errors. • Is well organized and well written. The 5–7 Essay • Contains a thesis that may be partially developed addressing the ways in which economic developments affected Massachusetts and Virginia politics between 1607 and 1750. • Supports the thesis with some relevant information. • Provides some analysis of the ways that economic development affected politics in the two colonies; may focus more on one colony. • May contain errors that do not seriously detract from the essay. • Has acceptable organization and writing. The 2–4 Essay • Contains a thesis that may be undeveloped or contains no thesis. • Includes minimal information relevant to the question. • Provides little or no analysis or contains only generalizations. • May contain major errors. • May be poorly organized and/or poorly written. The 0–1 Essay • Lacks a thesis or restates the question. • Includes little or no relevant information regarding the question. • Has little or no understanding of the question. • May contain numerous errors. • Is poorly organized and/or poorly written. The — Essay • Is blank or completely off task. Copyright © 2005 by College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 9 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2005 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 2 Fact Sheet Virginia Economic Development Indentured servants Slaves Plantation economy/plantations Gold “Starving time” Headright system John Rolfe (tobacco) John Smith Jamestown Joint stock company: Virginia Company of London Cash crops Tobacco Massachusetts Economic Development Merchant class/middle class Mercantile elite influence Puritan work ethic Joint-stock companies: Virginia Company of Plymouth Massachusetts Bay Company Town/village development General Assembly/Court Property/church requirement to vote Church requirement dropped after 1690’s Puritans Massachusetts economy: mercantile fishing shipbuilding lumbering fur small farms Triangular trade Politics Elite rule Oligarchy/aristocracy House of Burgesses Bacon’s Rebellion, 1676 William Berkeley County government Revocation of Virginia charter (1624) Politics John Winthrop “City on a hill” Town meeting/General Court Plymouth William Bradford Mayflower Compact Theocracy Church leaders/church membership Salem, 1692 New England Confederation (1643) Revocation of Massachusetts Bay Charter (1684) Dominion of New England (1686): Edmund Andros, Governor Common for both colonies Mercantilism Navigation Acts Wool Act, 1699 Hat Act, 1732 Molasses Act, 1733 (tariffs) Iron Act, 1750 Elite rule Property ownership made white men eligible to vote Indians Expansion caused a clash with Indians (economic and political) Copyright © 2005 by College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 10 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2005 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 3 To what extent did the debates about the Mexican War and its aftermath reflect the sectional interests of New Englanders, westerners, and southerners in the period from 1845 to 1855? The 8–9 Essay • Contains a clear, well-developed thesis addressing the extent to which the debates about the Mexican War and its aftermath reflected the sectional interests of New Englanders, westerners, and southerners in the period from 1845 to 1855. • Supports the thesis with substantial, specific, and relevant information. • Provides effective analysis of the question over the time period with a reasonably balanced sectional treatment. • May contain minor errors. • Is well organized and well written. The 5–7 Essay • Contains a thesis that may be partially developed addressing the extent to which the debates about the Mexican War and its aftermath reflected the sectional interests of New Englanders, westerners, and southerners. • Supports the thesis with some specific, relevant information. • Provides some analysis of the question over time; treatment of the time period and/or sections may be imbalanced. • May contain errors that do not seriously detract from the quality of the essay. • Has acceptable organization and writing. The 2–4 Essay • Contains a confused or unfocused thesis, or may simply paraphrase the question. • Provides minimal relevant information or merely states facts. • Provides little or no analysis, mostly generalizations; treatment of the time period and/or sections is imbalanced. • May contain major errors. • May be poorly organized and/or poorly written. The 0–1 Essay • Lacks a thesis or simply restates the question. • Demonstrates an incompetent or inadequate response. • Has little or no understanding of the question. • May contain substantial factual errors. • Is poorly organized and/or poorly written. The — Essay • Is blank or completely off task. Copyright © 2005 by College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for AP students and parents). 11 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2005 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 3 Fact Sheet Debates about the Mexican War and its aftermath might include: Dispute over extension of slavery into the western territories Breakdown of the two-party political system Intensifying emotional and ideological polarization between the North and South Widening differences in sectional views and lifestyles, especially between the North and South Economic competition between regions State rights versus federal power Political imbalance in Congress Pre-1845 Expansionism in general—Louisiana Purchase (1803), Missouri Compromise (1820) Jackson and Van Buren’s policy toward the admission of Texas Presidential election of 1844—“A mandate for annexation” Polk (Democrat) Birney (Liberty) 1845–1855 William Lloyd Garrison—American Antislavery Society/The Liberator Texas annexation/statehood (1845) Oregon issue—“54°40’ or Fight”/Oregon Treaty (1846) “Slave Power conspiracy” John O’Sullivan and Manifest Destiny (1845) Boundary disagreements between Mexico and U.S.—Nueces, Rio Grande (1846) Slidell Mission (1845) Zachary Taylor at the Rio Grande (1846) Declaration of war (1846)—Conscience and Cotton Whig objections Spot Resolution—“American Blood Spilled on American Soil” Mr. Polk’s War Wilmot Proviso (1846)—Democrat from Pennsylvania (passed in House; rejected in Senate) increases tensions Henry David Thoreau—Civil Disobedience Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) (Texas at Rio Grande, Mexican Cession) All-Mexico movement Presidential election of 1848: Cass (Michigan Democrat)—supports “Popular Sovereignty” Taylor (Whig) Van Buren (Free Soil Party) Clay/Webster/Calhoun Senate debates The Compromise of 1850 (Clay “Omnibus Bill”; Stephen Douglas) California as a free state—upsets slave/free state balance New Mexico and Utah territories—popular sovereignty Texas–New Mexico boundary adjustment Fugitive Slave Law Ends slave trade in Washington, D.C. Nashville Convention (1850) Personal Liberty Laws/fugitive slave rescues Copyright © 2005 by College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for AP students and parents). 12 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2005 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 3 Fact Sheet (continued) Presidential election of 1852: Pierce (Democrat) Scott (Whig) Hale (Free Soil) Harriet Beecher Stowe, Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852) Gadsden Purchase (1853): potential southern railroad route Railroa–Nebraska Act (1854) Douglas: popular sovereignty/repeals Missouri Compromise line ends the Whig Party; splits Democrats; creates Republican Party New England Emigrant Aid Society Know-Nothing Party Ostend Manifesto (1854)—Cuba Kansas—Topeka (Free Soil); Lecompton (proslavery) Post-1855 Bleeding Kansas (1856) John Brown (1856) Dred Scott (1857) Lecompton Constitution (1857) Slave State/Free State Balance, 1821–1858 Slave 12 13 13 14 15 15 15 15 15 Free 12 12 13 13 13 14 15 16 17 Year 1821 1836 1837 1845 1845 1846 1848 1850 1858 State Missouri/Maine Arkansas Michigan Florida Texas Iowa Wisconsin California Minnesota Copyright © 2005 by College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for AP students and parents). 13 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2005 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 4 Describe the patterns of immigration in TWO of the periods listed below. Compare and contrast the responses of Americans to immigrants in these periods. 1820 to 1860 1880 to 1924 1965 to 2000 The 8–9 Essay • Contains a clear, well-developed thesis that describes the patterns of immigration AND compares and contrasts American responses to immigrants in both of these time periods. • Supports the thesis with substantial, specific, and relevant information. • Effectively describes the patterns of immigration AND effectively compares and contrasts American responses to immigrants; may treat one time period more extensively than the other. • May contain minor errors that do not detract from the overall quality of the essay. • Is well organized and well written. The 5–7 Essay • Contains a thesis that may be partially developed that describes the patterns of immigration AND compares and contrasts American responses to immigrants in both of these time periods. • Supports the thesis with specific, relevant information. • May present a limited or imbalanced treatment that describes the patterns of immigration in both periods; may present a limited comparison and contrast of American responses to immigrants. • May contain errors that do not seriously detract from the quality of the essay. • Has acceptable organization and writing. The 2–4 Essay • Contains a weak or undeveloped thesis. • Provides few relevant facts with vague generalizations. • Demonstrates imbalanced treatment of the time periods with little or no description; little or no comparison or contrast. • May contain major errors. • May be poorly organized and/or poorly written. The 0–1 Essay • Lacks a thesis or simply restates the question. • Demonstrates an incompetent or inadequate response. • Has little or no understanding of the question. • May contain substantial factual errors. • Is poorly organized and/or poorly written. The — Essay • Is blank or completely off task. Copyright © 2005 by College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for AP students and parents). 14 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2005 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 4 Fact Sheet 1820 to 1860 • • • • • PATTERNS “Old Immigrants” (“Old Stock”) Rising immigration primarily from Northern and Western Europe (3 million from 1846 to1854) Ireland Canal building 1820s and 1830s Potato Famine 1845-49 Irish immigrants settled mainly in cities of Northeast and many became Democrats. Economics—Irish worked for low wages in menial jobs; used as strikebreakers opposed by labor unions. Religion—Irish were Roman Catholic; most Americans were Protestant. Germany Political Revolution (1848) Germans settled in farmland in Midwest (Wisconsin, Missouri), also in Texas. German artisans and intellectuals settled in cities. Germans were mainly Protestant (some Catholics and Jews). Germans had a high rate of assimilation into American society. Others Trans-Atlantic Scandinavia, England, and other parts of Europe Trans-Pacific China and the Pacific Basin Mexico and other parts of Latin America Push/Pull Factors Economic opportunity in the U.S. Freedom in the U.S. Political unrest • • RESPONSES Discrimination based on economics, religion, ethnic prejudice Rise of Nativism 1843—Anti-immigrant citizens formed American Republican Party; anti– Irish Catholic; advocated 21 years of residency for citizenship. 1844—Irish Catholics attacked American Republicans; led to riots in Philadelphia. 1849—Order of the Star Spangled Banner formed; secret nativist Society. 1854—American Party (KnowNothings) formed; did well in local elections in northern states, called for an end to Chinese immigration in California. 1850s—Anti-Chinese violence; discrimination and legislation on West Coast Copyright © 2005 by College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for AP students and parents). 15 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2005 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 4 Fact Sheet (continued) 1880 to 1924 • • • • PATTERNS “New Immigrants” Shift in immigration patterns to immigrants from Central, Southern and Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and Asia (10 million between 1890 and 1920) • • Italians, Greeks, Slavs, Jews, and Armenians Seventy percent came through New York City (the “Golden Door”). Settled in cities mostly in Northeast. Lived in ethnic communities (ethnic ghettos). Took low-paying, menial jobs. Religion—mainly Catholic, Orthodox, Jews, non-Protestant Push/Pull Factors Poor economy Pogroms in Russia Freedom of religion in U.S. Economic opportunity Trans-Atlantic Steam-powered ships; steerage “birds of passage”; young single men who worked for a number of years and returned home, sometimes bringing back family • • • • RESPONSES Nativism Prejudice and discrimination 1894—Immigration Restriction League formed. 1887—American Protective Association formed; immigrants and the Catholic Church targeted. 1891—U.S. Office of Immigration created; power to exclude immigrants. 1892—Ellis Island opened as immigration center into New York City. 1886—Statue of Liberty; gift to U.S. from France; “Give me your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning to breathe free.” (Emma Lazarus) Boss politics Social Reform groups acted to help immigrants. Social Gospel Movement—1880s and 1890s—Urban churches provided social services for the poor. Settlement House Movement— Provided social services for immigrants in cities. Jane Addams—Hull House (Chicago) Lillian Wald—Henry Street Settlement (New York City) By 1910—Over 400 settlement houses Charity Organization Movement (1882) Charity Organization Society (COS) founded by Josephine Shaw Lowell. Prohibition—1874—WCTU 1893—Anti-Saloon League Carrie Nation; dry states: Maine, Kansas, North Dakota (contrary to practices of many New Immigrants) Copyright © 2005 by College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for AP students and parents). 16 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2005 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 4 Fact Sheet (continued) • • 1880 to 1924 PATTERNS “Melting Pot” Assimilation into mainstream American Society • Chinese Contract Labor Law (1864); Chinese were recruited by American railroad companies to build transcontinental railroad (250,000). Other occupations included mining, farming, fishing, factory work food preparation, and laundering. Chinese immigrants accepted low wages; American labor unions sought to exclude them. Anti-Asian movements claimed Asians were physically and mentally inferior to white Americans. 1882—Chinese Exclusion Act prohibited Chinese laborers from entering U.S. (renewed in 1892, 1902) 1885—Contract Labor Law (1864) repealed. • • • • • • Japanese Japanese migrated to Hawaii to work on sugar plantation. U.S. annexed Hawaii in 1898. Japanese migrated mostly to West Coast, most in Los Angeles area. (200,000 by 1920) Anti-Japanese feeling 1907—Gentlemen’s Agreement; Japan agreed to stop issuing passports to laborers. 1910—Angel Island; immigration center in San Francisco Bay established by federal government; required medical checks and lengthy examinations. 1913—California passed Webb Alien Land Law; banned alien (noncitizen) Asians from owning farmland. • • • • Mexicans 1910—Mexican Revolution and Civil War increased immigration to U.S. Economics—Employers hired Mexican laborers to work on farms and ranches. Helped construct railroads during World War I. Farming and mining—Mexicans were willing to work long hours at low pay. Immigration Quota Act of 1921 drew more Mexicans to U.S. to work. (50,000 between 1900 and 1910; hundreds of thousands between 1910 and 1920) RESPONSES • • • • Prejudice and discrimination against Mexican immigrants 1917—Literacy Test for all immigrants 16 years of age or older instituted. 1921—Immigration Quota Act set annual immigration limit at 350,000 (did not include immigrants from Western Hemisphere). Nationality quota instituted—It was based on 3 percent of each nationality group’s representation in 1910 census (designed to restrict flow of immigrants from southern and eastern Europe). 1924—National Origins Act set annual immigration limit to 150,000; quota was revised to 2 percent of each nationality’s representation in the 1890 census. Copyright © 2005 by College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for AP students and parents). 17 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2005 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 4 Fact Sheet (continued) 1965 to 2000 • • PATTERNS Shift in immigration patterns: -Most immigrants are from Asia and Latin America. -Some are from Balkans, Eastern Europe, Middle East, Southwest Asia, and Haiti. -Legal immigration matched or exceeded the previous peak decade of 1901–1910 (8.8 million). -During the period 1970–2000, more than 30 million legal and illegal immigrants entered the U.S. -U.S. admits approximately 900,000 legal immigrants every year; approximately 1 million receive permanent residency annually. -Illegal aliens are estimated at 500,000 annually by Census Bureau. -Many immigrants were urban professionals, such as physicians, female nurses, and small business owners in cities. -Laborers—Arabs worked in Detroit auto plants; Mexicans worked in the southern California service economy. -Immigrants have brought about significant changes in the racial, ethnic, and cultural make-up of the U.S. -Some are refugees. Refugees— Cubans (three stages) 1959—200,000 emigrated. Most were well educated and middle class; fled from Fidel Castro. 1965—360,000 were allowed to leave; socially diverse 1980–81—130,000 comprised the “Mariel group”; left when Castro let many working class Cubans emigrate. By 1980, Cuban Americans were the largest single post–World War II nationality group. • • • • • • RESPONSES Backlash against growing numbers of immigrants; economic and cultural Prejudice has been evident. Some Americans support immigration restriction. They believe illegal aliens take low-skilled jobs from Americans and have lowered wages because they are willing to work for less. They also believe that skilled immigrants take jobs from qualified Americans. Some Americans believe that immigrants have revitalized American culture and the economy. (Many are multilingual and scientifically trained workers.) “English Only” political debates; 23 states have adopted English as official language. Assimilation or not? (melting pot, mosaic, salad bowl comparison) Some Americans feel recent immigrants should assimilate as previous immigrant groups have; some point out the U.S. commitment to immigration keeps the country culturally rich and economically strong. Legislation 1965—Immigration Act -Major reform; national quotas are abolished; overall limit established. -170,000 from Eastern Hemisphere and 120,000 from Western Hemisphere; close relatives of immigrants were exempt from quotas. 1978—New annual immigration limit of 290,000 set. 1980—Refugee Act -Refugees were handled separately. -President was authorized to set annual ceiling and allowed to admit any group of refugees in an emergency. -Also lowered annual limit to 270,000. Copyright © 2005 by College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for AP students and parents). 18 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2005 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 4 Fact Sheet (continued) 1965 to 2000 PATTERNS RESPONSES Southeast Asians Southeast Asia was a second major source of refugees after 1965. 1975—130,000 Vietnamese emigrated after the fall of Saigon. 1986—Immigration Reform and Control Act -Raised annual immigration limit to 540,000. -Amnesty was offered to illegal aliens able to prove U.S. residence from 1/1/82. -Sanctions introduced for employers of illegal aliens. 1990—Immigration Act of 1990 -Annual immigration limit was raised to 700,000. -After 1994, it drops to 675,000 -Amended McCarran-Walter Act of 1952. -People cannot be denied admittance to U.S. on basis of beliefs, statements, or associations. 1990s—Political debates over restricting immigration and providing public social services to illegal immigrants, e.g., Proposition 187 in California (1994) 1996—Immigration Act -Doubled U.S. Border Patrol; mandated construction of fences. -Established pilot program to check immigration status of job applicants. -Sought to reduce number of illegal aliens from Mexico. 1996—Welfare Reform Bill -Cut social programs for legal immigrants. -Illegal immigrants were made ineligible for all federal and state benefits except emergency medical care immunization programs and disaster relief. Copyright © 2005 by College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for AP students and parents). 19 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2005 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 5 Analyze the extent to which TWO of the following transformed American society in the 1960’s and 1970’s. The Civil Rights movement The antiwar movement The women’s movement The 8–9 Essay • Contains a clear, well-developed thesis that analyzes the extent to which two of the movements transformed American society in the 1960’s and 1970’s. • Develops the thesis with substantial, relevant supporting information concerning the two movements and how they transformed American society in the 1960’s and 1970’s. • Provides effective analysis of the two movements and their impact on American society in the 1960’s and 1970’s; may treat one movement more extensively than the other. • May contain minor errors that do not detract from the overall quality of the essay. • Is well organized and well written. The 5–7 Essay • Contains a thesis that may be only partially developed with some analysis of the extent to which two of the movements transformed American society in the 1960’s and 1970’s. • Supports the thesis with some relevant information concerning the two movements and how they transformed American society in the 1960’s and 1970’s. • Provides some analysis of the two movements and their impact on American society in the time period, though may be unbalanced in its coverage. • May contain errors that do not seriously detract from the quality of the essay. • Has acceptable organization and writing. The 2–4 Essay • Contains a weak or undeveloped thesis or simply paraphrases the question. • Provides few relevant facts, or lists facts with little or no application to the thesis. • Provides little analysis and/or may be largely generalized or addresses only one movement. • May contain major errors. • May be poorly organized and/or poorly written. The 0–1 Essay • Lacks a thesis or simply restates the question. • Demonstrates an incompetent or inadequate response. • Has little or no understanding of the question. • May contain substantial factual errors. • Is poorly organized and/or poorly written. The — Essay • Is blank or completely off task. Copyright © 2005 by College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for AP students and parents). 20 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2005 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 5 Fact Sheet The Antiwar Movement—1960’s and 1970’s The Civil Rights Movement—1960’s and 1970’s • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Martin Luther King, Jr. and nonviolent resistance Malcolm X, Black Muslims, Nation of Islam Black Panthers Greensboro sit-ins, 1960 Freedom rides, 1961 Birmingham protests, 1963 MLK’s March on Washington “I have a dream” Eugene T. “Bull” Connor Civil Rights Act of 1964 Selma, Alabama George Wallace 24th Amendment Poll taxes, literacy test Mississippi Freedom Summer Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party Voting Rights Act of 1965 SNCC and Stokely Carmichael—move from passive resistance SNCC—antiwar—“those little rice farmers” Black Power movement Long hot summers—1964 Harlem, 1965 Watts Civil Rights (Kerner) Commission Affirmative action Cesar Chavez—Hispanic rights Civil Rights Act of 1968 American Independence Party AIM launched Stonewall Riot, 1969—gay rights Busing moratorium, 1972 Wounded Knee, 1973—Indian rights • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Student demonstrations—sit-ins, peace-ins, teach-ins, etc. SDS Antiwar protests—“Hawks” vs. “Doves” Tet Offensive—change in TV coverage of war Death toll—58,000 Human and economic costs of the war Tom Hayden (Chicago 8) Jane Fonda ROTC Resistance to the Draft Conscientious objectors “Hey, hey, LBJ, how many…” Fulbright Hearings Julian Bond and the Georgia legislature Muhammad Ali stripped of title Daniel Ellsberg—Pentagon Papers Vietnam Veterans Against the War Vietnamization Invasion of Cambodia Vietnam Moratorium 1970 Kent State, May, 1970 War Powers Act Collapse of Democratic Republic of South Vietnam, April 1975 Gulf of Tonkin Resolution Copyright © 2005 by College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for AP students and parents). 21 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2005 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 5 Fact Sheet (continued) The Women’s Movement—1960’s and 1970’s Transformation of Society—1960’s and 1970’s (noncategorized) • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Advocacy of social reforms (child care, abortion rights, maternity rights, birth control, pay equity) President’s Commission on the Status of Women (JFK) Betty Friedan’s The Feminine Mystique NOW, 1966 Women’s Lib movement Civil Rights Act of 1964 Zap actions—Miss America pageant protests Radical feminism New Feminism—“second wave” Equal Rights Amendment Propagation of Women’s Studies programs Bra burning “The Pill” Title IX Women’s shelters Roe v. Wade “Ms.” AFDC SCUM Barbara Walters Phyllis Schlafly • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • JFK and RFK—New Frontier Nixon’s “Silent Majority”—public fear of violence, crime, racial tensions, sexual permissiveness Increase in minimum wage LBJ and the Great Society “War on Poverty” Economic Opportunity Act of 1964—EEOC Head Start Job Corps Peace Corps/VISTA Community Action Programs 89th Congress Medicare and Medicaid Creation of HUD Immigration reform Griswold—right to privacy Escobedo and Miranda—rights of the accused Legal end to segregation America’s “new” role on world stage (Nixon’s) Supreme Court moves to the right Volunteer army—end of the draft Disillusionment African American underclass gap widens Copyright © 2005 by College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for AP students and parents). 22 ...
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