Unit 5, Question 9 - AP® United States History 2006...

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Unformatted text preview: AP® United States History 2006 Scoring Guidelines The College Board: Connecting Students to College Success The College Board is a not-for-profit membership association whose mission is to connect students to college success and opportunity. Founded in 1900, the association is composed of more than 5,000 schools, colleges, universities, and other educational organizations. Each year, the College Board serves seven million students and their parents, 23,000 high schools, and 3,500 colleges through major programs and services in college admissions, guidance, assessment, financial aid, enrollment, and teaching and learning. Among its best-known programs are the SAT®, the PSAT/NMSQT®, and the Advanced Placement Program® (AP®). The College Board is committed to the principles of excellence and equity, and that commitment is embodied in all of its programs, services, activities, and concerns. © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. 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AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1—Document-Based Question Discuss the changing ideals of American womanhood between the American Revolution (1770’s) and the outbreak of the Civil War. What factors fostered the emergence of “republican motherhood” and the “cult of domesticity”? Assess the extent to which these ideals influenced the lives of women during this period. In your answer be sure to consider issues of race and class. Use the documents and your knowledge of the time period in constructing your response. The 8–9 Essay • Contains a well-developed thesis that examines the changing ideals of American womanhood between the American Revolution (1770’s) and the Civil War and assesses the extent to which these ideals influenced the lives of women. • Supports the thesis with an effective analysis of these ideals (republican motherhood, cult of domesticity), the reasons for their emergence, and the extent to which these ideals influenced the lives of women, considering issues of race and class. May be stronger on some aspects than others. • Effectively uses a substantial number of documents. • Supports thesis with substantial and relevant outside information. • May contain minor errors. • Is clearly organized and well written. The 5–7 Essay • Contains a thesis that addresses the changing ideals of American womanhood between the American Revolution and the Civil War and addresses the extent to which these ideals influenced the lives of women. • Has limited or implicit analysis of these ideals, the reasons for their emergence, and the extent to which they influenced the lives of women. Some aspects may be imbalanced or omitted. • Effectively uses some documents. • Supports thesis with some relevant outside information. • May have errors that do not seriously detract from the quality of the essay. • Shows acceptable organization and writing; language errors do not interfere with the comprehension of the essay. The 2–4 Essay • Contains a limited or undeveloped thesis. • Lacks analysis; deals with the question in a general, simplistic, incomplete, or superficial manner. • Merely paraphrases, quotes, or briefly cites documents. • Contains little outside information, or information that is inaccurate or irrelevant. • May contain major errors. • May be poorly organized and/or poorly written. The 0–1 Essay • Lacks a thesis or simply restates the question. • Exhibits inadequate or incorrect understanding of the question. • Has little or no understanding of the documents or ignores them completely. • Contains no outside information. © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 2 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1—Document-Based Question (continued) • • May contain substantial factual errors. Is poorly organized and/or poorly written. The — Essay • Is blank or completely off task. © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 3 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1 Document Information and Inferences Document A: Letter written by a Philadelphia woman, 1776 Document Information: • The letter writer restrained spending. • She relied on homemade products. • Committment to public good and freedom. Document Inferences: • Women boycotted English goods. • Women supported nonimportation and nonconsumption agreements. • Women participated in the American Revolution by manufacturing many of their own items. • Women were committed to the cause of freedom. • Boycotts may have been prevalent among affluent women. Potential outside information triggered by document: Deborah Sampson “Remember the ladies …” Votes for women in some states (briefly) Daughters of Liberty Abigail Adams Molly Pitcher Camp followers Home manufacturing Document B: Benjamin Rush, Thoughts Upon Female Education, 1787 Document Information: • Every citizen has a stake in liberty. • Women should be educated so they can instruct “their sons in the principles of liberty and government.” Document Inferences: • The American Revolution led to expanded support for women’s educational opportunities. • The idea of republican motherhood began to emerge after the Revolution. • Women shared a responsibility in educating citizens. • Women served a limited but expanding political function. Potential outside information triggered by document: The academy movement Oberlin College Mary Wollstonecraft Philadelphia Young Ladies Academy Mary Lyon/Mount Holyoke Emma Willard Troy/Female Seminary Catharine Beecher/Hartford Female Seminary Prudence Crandall © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 4 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1 Document Information and Inferences (continued) Document C: Occupations of Women Wage Earners in Massachusetts, 1837 Document Information: • The leading occupations for women wage earners in Massachusetts were making hats, textiles, boots, and shoes. • Women also worked in domestic service, teaching, and garment making. Document Inferences: • Women were part of the paid work force. • Limited occupations were available for women. • Women’s occupations reflected traditional women’s roles. Potential outside information triggered by document: Lowell (mill) girls Cult of true womanhood Lowell/Waltham factory system Separate spheres Document D: Letter written by a factory worker, 1839 Document Information: • She initially thought she would not advise others to do it. • She has come to have positive feelings toward factory work. • Women comprise a portion of the industrial work force. • She boarded with a family. • Some women changed occupations to become factory workers. Document Inferences: • Some women viewed factory work as beneath their dignity. • Some women viewed factory work as temporary. • Previous occupations reflected traditional women’s roles. • Women recruited other women to work in factories. Potential outside information triggered by document: Lowell girls Lowell/Waltham factory system Cult of true womanhood Worker-run newspapers (Lowell Offering) Separate spheres Putting-out system “Turning out” (early strikes, 1830’s) Immigrant women © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 5 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1 Document Information and Inferences (continued) Document E: Margaret Fuller, Woman in the Nineteenth Century, 1845 Document Information: • Calls for equal opportunities with men. • Calls for increased freedom for women to promote personal growth. • The education of women should go beyond making them better companions and mothers. • A woman needs the freedom to develop fully. Document Inferences: • The notion of separate spheres constrained the potential of women. • Some women challenged the notions of separate spheres and the cult of domesticity. • Education of women should develop their full potential. • Some women challenged traditional roles, which they saw as constraining. Potential outside information triggered by document: The Dial Separate spheres Lucretia Mott Female seminaries Transcendentalism Elizabeth Cady Stanton Harriet Beecher Stowe Seneca Falls Document F: Sarah Bagley, “The Ten Hour System and Its Advocates,” Voice of Industry, January 16, 1846 Document Information: • Society tells women that free institutions depend on women forming and molding men and children into virtuous, intelligent beings. • The expectation of society is that these same women will engage in long hours of factory work. Document Inferences: • Society’s expectations of motherhood were hypocritical for wage-earning women. • Industry exploited women. • Some women were frustrated by the gap between the ideals of womanhood and reality. Potential outside information triggered by document: Lowell girls Cult of true womanhood Separate spheres “Turning out” (early strikes, 1830’s) Lowell/Waltham factory system Immigrant women Putting-out system Worker-run newspapers (Lowell Offering) © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 6 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1 Document Information and Inferences (continued) Document G: “Woman, and the ‘Woman’s Movement,’” Putnam’s monthly magazine of American literature, science and art, March 1853 Document Information: • Women are the guardians of men’s humanity. • Women are inferior to men in passion, intellect, and strength; a status that does not belittle women. • Natural inequality is the basis of women’s blessing to men. Document Inferences: • Despite their intellectual inferiority, women played an exalted role as moral guardians. • The ideal of American womanhood was subordination. • Women’s roles were to protect and nurture men. • There was opposition to the “woman’s movement” for equality. Potential outside information triggered by document: understands cult of domesticity Seneca Falls Convention (1848) Lucretia Mott Susan B. Anthony Women’s suffrage proposed Separate spheres Elizabeth Cady Stanton Amelia Bloomer Declaration of Sentiments Godey’s Lady’s Book Document H: Harriet Jacobs, Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, published in 1861 Document Information: • Owners thought of slaves as property. • Jacobs’ owner abused her. • The law did not protect slaves. • Slave owners’ wives did not protect slave women. • Slave owners’ wives felt jealousy and rage toward slave women. Document Inferences: • The ideals of American womanhood were not extended to slaves. • Slave women were sexually abuse and felt helpless to prevent it. • Slave owners’ wives had to endure the infidelity of their husbands. • There was a major gap between the ideals of womanhood and the reality of a slave woman’s life. Potential outside information triggered by document: Abolitionist movement Grimké sisters American Anti-Slavery Society Harriet Tubman/Underground Railroad Sojourner Truth Lucretia Mott Elizabeth Cady Stanton Catharine Beecher London Anti-Slavery Conference Lydia Maria Child Harriet Beecher Stowe/Uncle Tom’s Cabin William Lloyd Garrison’s acceptance of women in the abolition movement © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 7 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1 Document Information and Inferences (continued) Document I: Letters written by a frontier woman in Iowa to relatives, 1861 Document Information: • Hired hands sometimes helped farmers. • Women worked in the fields. • She believed her work was acceptable as a man’s. Document Inferences: • Women worked in the fields due to necessity and a shortage of labor. • Necessity sometimes forced frontier women outside their traditional roles. • Women sometimes did the same type of work as men on the frontier. • Women on the frontier aspired to the cult of domesticity. • There was a gap between the ideals of womanhood and life on the frontier. Potential outside information triggered by document: Separate spheres Narcissa Whitman Westward migration Greater equality for women in the West Wyoming vote (1869) Document J: H. L. Stephens, The Parting, 1863 Document Information: • Depicts sale of only part of a slave family. Document Inferences: • Slave families were often separated. • Slave families did not have stability. • There was a gap between the ideals of American womanhood and the experiences of slave women. • The cult of domesticity did not apply to slave women. • The slave system was brutal. Potential outside information triggered by document: Harriet Tubman Sojourner Truth Grimké sisters Elizabeth Cady Stanton Harriet Beecher Stowe/Uncle Tom’s Cabin Underground Railroad “Ar’n’t I a woman . . . ” Lucretia Mott Slave auctions Lydia Maria Child © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 8 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1 Document Information and Inferences (continued) Potential Outside Information List: (alphabetical order): “Ar’n’t I a woman . . . ” “Remember the ladies . . . ” “Turning out” (1830’s early strikes) Abolitionist movement Academy movement Adams, Abigail American Anti-Slavery Society Anthony, Susan B. Beecher, Catharine/Hartford Female Seminary Bloomer, Amelia Camp followers Chandler, Elizabeth Child, Lydia Maria Cold Water Army Crandall, Prudence Cult of true womanhood Daughters of Liberty Declaration of Sentiments Dix, Dorothea Douglass, Frederick Female missionary societies Female Moral Reform Society Garrison, William Lloyd Godey’s Lady’s Book Greater equality on the frontier Grimké sisters Home manufacturing Immigrant women Lee, Mother Ann London Anti-Slavery Conference Lowell girls Lowell/Waltham factory system Lyon, Mary/Mount Holyoke Martha Washington societies Mormons Mott, Lucretia Mount Holyoke Oberlin College Oneida Phelps, Elizabeth Philadelphia Young Ladies Academy Pitcher, Molly Polygamy Putting-out system Sampson, Deborah Second Great Awakening Sedgewick, Catherine Seneca Falls Convention Separate spheres Shakers Slave auctions Sojourner Truth Stanton, Elizabeth Cady Stone, Lucy Stowe, Harriet Beecher/Uncle Tom’s Cabin Temperance movement The Dial Transcendentalism Troy Female Seminary/Emma Willard Tubman, Harriet Underground Railroad Votes for women in some states (briefly after American Revolution) Warner, Susan Whitman, Narcissa Willard, Emma Wollstonecraft, Mary Women writers (Sedgwick, Phelps, Warner) Women’s suffrage proposed Worker-run newspapers (Factory Girl, Lowell Offering) Wyoming vote (1869) Note: Demonstrated understanding of republican motherhood and/or cult of domesticity is outside information. © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 9 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 2 Analyze the differences between the Spanish settlements in the Southwest and the English colonies in New England in the seventeenth century in terms of TWO of the following: Politics Religion Economic development The 8–9 Essay • Contains a clear, well-developed thesis that recognizes the differences between TWO aspects of Spanish and English settlements in the 1600’s. • Develops the thesis with considerable, relevant supporting historical information. • Treatment of the Spanish and English settlements may be somewhat uneven. • Provides effective analysis of the differences between the two settlements. • May contain minor errors. • Is well organized and well written. The 5–7 Essay • Contains a thesis that may be partially developed in addressing TWO differences in Spanish and English settlements in the 1600’s. • Supports the thesis with some relevant, historical information. • Demonstrates some analysis of the differences. • Discusses TWO differences, but one may be more developed than another. • May contain errors that do not seriously detract from the quality of the essay. • Has acceptable organization and writing. The 2–4 Essay • Contains a confused or unfocused thesis or simply paraphrases the question. • Provides a few relevant facts or lists facts with little or no application to the question. • May include broad generalizations or significant imbalance in factual support for the differences. • Demonstrates little or no analysis about the differences. • May contain major errors. • May be poorly organized and/or poorly written. The 0–1 Essay • Lacks a thesis or simply restates the question. • Demonstrates an incompetent or inappropriate response. • Has little or no understanding of the question. • Contains substantial errors. The — Essay • Is blank or completely off task. © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 10 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 2 Fact Sheet Spain/Southwest Politics Indians (Hopi/Pueblo) Spanish governors (King of Spain) Centralized control from Spain Elite governor (nobles) responsible to king Hierarchical political structure Royal appointees, mestizos, Indians Presidios Viceroys Juan Onate Religion Missions Catholic faith Conversion of the Indians (Franciscans) Pueblo Revolt (1680)—Pope Suppression of native religion Church’s central role in settlement Economic Development Mercantilism Encomiendas, haciendas Use of Indians as forced labor Livestock raising Cash or staple crops “Black Legend” England/New England Politics Indians (Pequot, King Philip’s Wars) Mayflower Compact Town meetings, General Court British king (Stuart monarchy) Dominion of New England “City on a hill” Plymouth colony Governor responsible to colony Fundamental Orders of Connecticut Religion Puritans, Pilgrims, Separatists Rhode Island, Roger Williams Religious toleration Anne Hutchinson Religious freedom (escape persecution) Salem witchcraft trials © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 11 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 2 Fact Sheet (continued) John Winthrop The Model of Christian Charity The Scarlet Letter The Crucible “Praying towns,” John Eliot Half-way Covenant, Old Deluder Law Economic Development Mercantilism (Navigation Acts) Lumber, fishing, shipbuilding Rocky soil Indentured servants, limited slavery Triangular trade “Salutary neglect” (1689–1754) Family farms, joint stock companies © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 12 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 3 Explain why and how the role of the federal government changed as a result of the Civil War with respect to TWO of the following during the period 1861–1877: Race relations Economic development Westward expansion The 8–9 Essay • Contains a clear, well-developed thesis that explains why and how the Civil War changed the role of the federal government in TWO aspects of society from 1861–1877. • Develops the thesis with considerable specific and relevant historical information. • Covers both the why and how; coverage may be somewhat uneven. • Provides effective analysis of TWO topics. • May contain minor errors. • Is well organized and well written. The 5–7 Essay • Contains a thesis that partially explains why and how the Civil War changed the role of the federal government in TWO aspects of society from 1861–1877. • Supports the thesis with some specific and relevant historical information. • Covers both the why and how; coverage may be significantly uneven. • Provides some analysis of TWO topics; treatment may be unbalanced. • May contain errors that do not seriously detract from the quality of the essay. • Has acceptable organization and writing. The 2–4 Essay • Contains a confused or unfocused thesis or simply paraphrases the question without explaining why and how. • Provides minimal relevant information or lists facts with little or no application to the question. • Covers only the why or how or makes general statements for both. • Describes only ONE topic or addresses TWO topics in a general way. • May contain major errors. • May be poorly organized and/or poorly written. The 0–1 Essay • Lacks a thesis or simply restates the question. • Demonstrates an incompetent or inappropriate response. • Has little or no understanding of the question. • Contains substantial errors. The — Essay • Is blank or completely off task. © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 13 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 3 Fact Sheet Race Relations Why Lincoln and the secession issue Role of the border states Lincoln’s changing view of war Lincoln’s chance to implement a Republican agenda Presidential and Congressional Reconstruction Radical Republicanism in Congress (1867–1877) How Emancipation Proclamation (1863) Lincoln’s 10 percent Plan (1863) Wade–Davis Bill (1864) Black soldiers in the Union Army (1862) Sherman’s March Sherman’s /Special Field Order #15 (1865) 13th Amendment (1865) Freedmen’s Bureau (1865) (Oliver O. Howard) Radical Republicans dominate Congress Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Sumner Black Codes (1865–1866) Civil Rights Act (1866) 14th Amendment (1868) Andrew Johnson and impeachment Reconstruction Plans (beginning in 1863) Ku Klux Klan 1866/groups of terror Ex Parte Milligan (1866) 15th Amendment The Enforcement Acts (1870–1871) Ulysses Grant Civil Rights Act (1875) Redemption (1870’s) Slaughterhouse Cases (1873) U.S. v. Cruikshank (1876) U.S. v. Reese (1876) Election of 1876 (Hayes vs. Tilden) Compromise of 1877 © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 14 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 3 Fact Sheet (continued) Economic Development Why Federal government’s consolidation of power Consequences of laissez-faire capitalism Fulfillment of Republican Agenda—economic Railroad unifying America How Monetary issues: “Greenbacks,” income tax, etc. Increase in iron and steel production—Birmingham, Alabama Southern Homestead Act (1866) Morrill Tariff Act (1861, 1862, 1864) National Banking Act (1863–1864) Pacific Railway Act (1862, 1864) Homestead Act (1862) First Transcontinental Railroad (1869) Union Pacific Railroad Central Pacific Railroad Public land to the railroads—100 million acres of public lands and $64 million in loans and tax incentives Coinage Act (1873)/“Crime of ‘73” Use of federal troops to break up Great Railroad Strike (1877) Compromise of 1877—aid to the South Westward Expansion Why Transcontinental Railroad Various economic impulses creating unified national markets Dealings with Native Americans How: Homestead Act (1862) Morrill Land Grant Act (1862) Congress charters railroads Pacific Railway Act (1862, 1864) First Transcontinental Railroad (1869) Union Pacific Railroad Central Pacific Railroad New states in the union—Kansas, Nevada, Nebraska, Colorado Alaska “Seward’s Folly” (1867) The Mining Frontier Indian wars/treaties Buffalo Soldiers © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 15 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 4 Historians have argued that Progressive reform lost momentum in the 1920’s. Evaluate this statement with respect to TWO of the following: Regulation of business Labor Immigrants The 8–9 Essay • Contains a clear, well-developed thesis that evaluates whether or not Progressive reform lost momentum in the 1920’s. • Develops the thesis with substantial and specific relevant historical information. • Provides effective analysis of Progressive reform before and during the 1920’s; treatment may be somewhat uneven. • Provides effective analysis of TWO topics (regulation of business/labor/immigrants); treatment of topics may be somewhat uneven. • May contain minor errors that do not detract from the overall quality of the essay. • Is well organized and well written. The 5–7 Essay • Contains a thesis that partially evaluates whether or not Progressive reform lost momentum in the 1920’s. • Supports the thesis with some relevant and specific historical information. • Provides some analysis of Progressive reform before and during the 1920’s; treatment may be substantially uneven. • Provides some analysis of TWO topics (regulation of business/labor/immigrants); treatment of topics may be substantially uneven. • May contain errors that do not seriously detract from the quality of the essay. • Has acceptable organization and writing. The 2–4 Essay • Contains a confused or unfocused thesis or may simply restate the question. • Provides minimal relevant information or lists facts with little or no application to the question. • Offers minimal consideration of Progressive reform before and during the 1920’s or consideration of Progressive reform only before the 1920’s. • Addresses only ONE topic (regulation of business/labor/immigrants) or describes TWO topics in a general way. • May contain major errors. • May be poorly organized and/or poorly written. © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 16 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 4 (continued) The 0–1 Essay • • • • • Lacks a thesis or paraphrases the question. Demonstrates an incompetent or inappropriate response. Has little or no understanding of the question. Contains substantial errors. Is poorly organized and/or poorly written. The — Essay • Is blank or completely off task. © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 17 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 4 Information List REGULATION OF BUSINESS Progressive Reform • Middle class reformers and intellectuals (Steffens, Tarbell, Sinclair, muckrakers, social gospel). • State governments (e.g., Wisconsin, LaFollette) regulate business practices. • Anti-trust activities o Use of Sherman Anti-Trust Act (1890) o Teddy Roosevelt: “Square Deal”; reputation for trust busting (Northern Securities/Standard Oil); wanted regulation by government rather than dissolution; “gentlemen’s agreements”; “good” vs. “bad” trusts o Taft: anti-trust suits 1911 against U.S. Steel, Standard Oil o “Rule of reason” by Supreme Court (Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey v. United States, 1910) • Department of Commerce and Labor (1903) created Bureau of Corporations; split into two departments in 1913. • Elkins Act (1903) made rebates illegal on both railroads and shippers. • Hepburn Act (1906) strengthened Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC); allowed ICC to set maximum railroad rates and inspect finances. • Pure Food and Drug Act (1906) established Food and Drug Administration (FDA). • Meat Inspection Act (1906) established Department of Agriculture to inspect and label meat. • Payne–Aldrich Tariff (1909) reduced tariff rates from 46 percent to 41 percent but exempted many items. • Mann–Elkins Act (1910) strengthened Elkins Act. • Teddy Roosevelt’s “New Nationalism” (1912): use power of federal government to regulate industry. • Woodrow Wilson’s “New Freedom” (1912): federal government should use its limited power to break up concentrated economic power and restore competition. • Federal Reserve Act (1913): some public control over banking, although Wilson made conservative appointments to Federal Reserve Board. • Underwood Tariff (1913) (27 percent rate). • Federal Trade Commission Act (1914) established Federal Trade Commission (FTC); regulated unfair practices in interstate trade. • Clayton Anti-Trust Act (1914) strengthened Sherman Anti-Trust Act; exempted labor unions from anti-trust prosecution. • World War I more regulation of business; Wilson supported government–industry agreements; War Industries Board (1917); Railroad Administration (1917). © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 18 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 4 Information List (continued) 1920’s • World War I and Red Scare discouraged economic reform (accusations of socialism/communism). • Economic boom and general prosperity inhibits calls for business regulation. (Coolidge: “The business of America is business. The man who builds a factory builds a temple. The man who works there worships there.”) • Expansion of business/consumerism/mass production (e.g., Ford). • Business managers get more respect due to wartime contributions (e.g., Hoover and World War I Food Administration). • Trend toward business consolidation (mergers in steel, meat packing); trade associations, “regulated competition.” • Republican presidential administrations (Harding, Coolidge, Hoover) tried to help business (“hands off” attitude toward regulation; ignored anti-trust laws). • ICC and FTC became pro-business agencies. • Corruption in Harding administration involving business: Teapot Dome (1921). • Secretary of Treasury Andrew Mellon: reduced corporate taxes (excise-profits tax) and taxes on wealthy. • Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover: voluntary cooperation among businesses; “business associationalism” through trade associations; product standardization. • High tariff policies: Fordney–McCumber Tariff (1922) (38.5 percent rate); Hawley–Smoot Tariff [or Smoot–Hawley Tariff] (1930) (as high as 60 percent on some items; highest peacetime tariff in U.S. history). LABOR Progressive Reform • State courts often issued injunctions against strikers. • Settlement houses (Jane Addams/Hull House). • Social welfare advocates; Florence Kelley (advocated for laws protecting women, children workers). • State governments regulate hours, wages, workers’ compensation, conditions of work. • Lochner v. New York (1905) overturns New York 10-hour law for bakers. • Muller v. Oregon (1908) upholds Oregon 10-hour law for female laundry workers; Brandeis Brief. • Triangle Shirtwaist Fire (1911); creation of New York State Factory Commission. • Socialism; industrial unionism: o Eugene Debs: Socialist Party o William “Big Bill” Hayward/Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) “wobblies” o Mother Jones o Emma Goldman • Teddy Roosevelt and anthracite coal strike (1902), compromise between miners and union. • Department of Labor (1913) (Children’s Bureau 1912; Women’s Bureau 1912). • Samuel Gompers/American Federation of Labor. • Taft: Eight-hour day for all workers in firms with government contracts. • Clayton Anti-Trust Act (1914) exempted labor unions from anti-trust laws; restricted used of injunctions in strikes. © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 19 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 4 Information List (continued) • • • • • • LaFollette Seaman’s Act (1915) regulated working conditions for seamen. Adamson Act (1916) eight-hour work day for railway workers; time-and-a-half for overtime. Workmen’s Compensation Act (1916), insurance program for federal workers. Keating–Owen Act (1916) restricted child labor on interstate goods; declared unconstitutional in Hammer v. Dagenhart (1918). World War I: National War Labor Board (1918); union membership increased; wages rose; improvement in working conditions; federal government went after IWW as critics of the war; strikes seen as unpatriotic. Labor strikes (1919) (Boston police). 1920’s • Red Scare and reaction against labor organization as un-American. • Maldistribution of wealth: some workers have rising standard of living, others did not. • “Welfare capitalism”: to stop independent trade unions; Henry Ford; safe factories, glee clubs, baseball teams, cafeterias, health and safety insurance, representation for blacks, women, and immigrants. • Company unions. • AFL conservative and tied to craft unionism. • Open-shop movement: “American Plan” endorsed by National Association of Manufacturers (1920). • “Yellow-dog” contracts. • Anti-union tactics by federal government (1922 federal troops broke railroad workers’ strike; Supreme court hostile to unions and strikers, often issuing injunctions against both). • Union membership decreased from 5 million in 1920 to 3 million in 1929. • Supreme Court ruled labor laws unconstitutional: o Bailey v. Drexel Furniture Company (1922) struck down federal law regulating child labor o Adkins v. Children’s Hospital (1923) struck down minimum wage law for women in Washington D.C. o Supreme Court weakened labor provisions of Clayton Anti-Trust Act (1914) in 1921 and 1927 IMMIGRANTS Progressive Reform • Settlement houses and immigrants (e.g., Hull House/Jane Addams): mix of English-language instruction, middle-class values, respect for European heritage, social gospel. • Americanization of immigrants taken up by reformers. • Some progressives wanted to limit immigration arguing that immigrants could not be assimilated into U.S. society, immigrants decreased wages, racial and ethnic inferiority. • Eugenics movement (Madison Grant, The Passing of the Great Race, 1916). • AFL: conservative and anti-immigrant; supported immigration restriction. • Immigration Restriction League (founded 1894; lobbied for restriction into the 1920’s). • 1906 San Francisco tried to segregate Asian children in separate schools. • 1907 Roosevelt’s Gentlemen’s Agreement with Japan: Japan agreed to limit emigration of Japanese laborers to U.S.; limited Japanese immigration to wives and children of men already in the United States; U.S. would stop discrimination against Japanese in U.S. © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 20 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 4 Information List (continued) • • • • Attempts at immigration restriction by U.S. Congress: o 1897 literacy test passed Congress; Cleveland vetoed it o 1913 Taft vetoed immigration bill o 1915 Wilson vetoed immigration bill Immigration Act (1917) (Barred Zone Act): passed over Wilson’s veto; established a literacy test (in immigrant’s language or English) for immigrants and excluded immigrants from a newly established Asiatic Barred Zone (eastern Asia and Pacific Islands except Filipinos). World War I: “100 percent Americanism”; anti-German sentiment; Mexicans exempted from 1917 literacy test due to demand for labor, but they were often segregated by law and custom in California and Southwest. Push for prohibition (18th Amendment) is partly anti-immigrant. 1920’s • Nativism. • Ku Klux Klan aimed partly at immigrants. • Red Scare (1919-20): many Americans associated immigrants with political radicalism (deportation of 249 supposed alien radicals to U.S.S.R. 1919; trial of Sacco and Vanzetti 192027), anarchism, Bolshevism. • Emergency Quota Act (1921): immigration reduced to approximately 350,000 from outside Western Hemisphere in any single year; quota system established; immigration from a single country limited to 3 percent of the number of persons of that country’s nationality living in the U.S. in 1910. • National Origins Act (Johnson–Reed Act) (1924): reduced quota to 2 percent based on 1890 census [fewer southern and eastern Europeans in U.S.]; banned immigration from east Asia [targeted Japan; Chinese immigration illegal since 1892; exempted Filipinos because U.S. controlled Philippines]; National Origins plan took effect in 1929: set limit of 150,000 immigrants per year. • “Cultural pluralists” opposed immigration restriction: intellectuals Horace Kallen, Randolph Bourne. • Defenders of ethnic diversity: Jane Addams, John Dewey, Louis Brandeis. • American farmers urged immigration of Mexican farm workers into U.S.; solos and barrios. • Immigrants often resisted “Americanization” through maintenance of their ethnic identities and communities. © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 21 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 5 While the United States appeared to be dominated by consensus and conformity in the 1950’s, some Americans reacted against the status quo. Analyze the critiques of United States society by TWO of the following: Youth Civil Rights Activists Intellectuals The 8–9 Essay • Contains a clear, well-developed thesis relating to consensus and conformity that analyzes critiques of the status quo in the 1950’s by TWO of the three groups. • Develops the thesis with substantial, relevant historical information concerning TWO of the three groups and their critique of the status quo in the 1950’s. • Provides effective analysis of the TWO groups and their critique of the status quo in the 1950’s; treatment of the groups may be somewhat unbalanced. • May contain minor errors that do not detract from the overall quality of the essay. • Is well organized and well written. The 5–7 Essay • Contains a thesis, which may be partially developed, that addresses critiques of the status quo in the 1950’s by TWO of the three groups. • Supports the thesis with some relevant supporting information concerning TWO of the three groups and how they critiqued the status quo in the 1950’s . • Provides some analysis of TWO groups and their critique of the status quo in the 1950’s; treatment may be unbalanced. • May contain errors that do not seriously detract from the quality of the essay. • Has acceptable organization and writing. The 2–4 Essay • Contains a weak or unfocused thesis or simply paraphrases the question. • Provides few relevant facts or lists facts with little or no application to the question. • Provides simplistic analysis that may be generally descriptive or addresses only ONE group. • May contain major errors. • May be poorly organized and/or poorly written. The 0–1 Essay • Lacks a thesis or simply restates the question. • Demonstrates an incompetent or inadequate response. • Has little or no understanding of the question. • Contains substantial factual errors. • Is poorly organized and/or poorly written. The — Essay • Is blank or completely off task. © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 22 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 5 Information List Youth American Bandstand Beats (Beatniks, Beat Generation) Coffee houses “Wild Ones” Allen Ginsberg, Howl (1955) Jack Kerouac, On the Road (1957) J. D. Salinger, Catcher in the Rye (1951) Rock and Roll Alan Freed Elvis Presley Jerry Lee Lewis, Buddy Holly, Bill Haley Rock music integrates world of youth Little Richard Chuck Berry B.B. King Chubby Checker Perception that juvenile delinquency was on the rise Blackboard Jungle Marlon Brando, The Wild One James Dean, Rebel Without a Cause Mad magazine Youth fashion Civil Rights Activists Legacy of World War II Impact of the integration of the military and Truman’s Committee on Civil Rights White citizens’ councils Re-emergence of the Ku Klux Klan Poll taxes Prosperity not shared by most African Americans De Facto versus De Jure segregation Brown v. Topeka Board of Education (1954)—Thurgood Marshall Brown II “With all deliberate speed” (1955) CORE Martin Luther King Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), 1957 Civil Rights Voting Act of 1957 Eisenhower, Little Rock—Governor Faubus Integration of youth music Medgar Evers Emmitt Till James Baldwin Emergence of Malcolm X at the end of the 1950’s Sports—Willie Mays, Hank Aaron, Joe Louis, Wilt Chamberlain, Bill Russell Nation of Islam Greensboro lunch counter (February 1960) Women Anti-McCarthy backlash Intellectuals Truman veto of the McCarran Act (1950)—passed over his veto Anti-McCarthyism (Joseph Welch—the lawyer who did the televised smack down with McCarthy) Edward R. Murrow William F. Buckley, Jr. Rosenberg execution backlash Existentialism C. Wright Mills Alfred Kinsey © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 23 AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 5 Information List (continued) J. D. Salinger, Catcher in the Rye (critique of introversion) Allen Ginsberg, Howl (1955) Arthur Miller, Death of a Salesman and The Crucible Jack Kerouac, On the Road (1957)—search for authenticity William Wythe, Organization Man David Riesman, The Lonely Crowd Joseph Heller, Catch 22 (1953), (critique of war) C. Wright Mills, White Collar and The Power Elite Ayn Rand, Atlas Shrugged Sloan Wilson, Man in the Gray Flannel Suit (conformity in the work place) Bishop Sheen, Life Is Worth Living (power of the individual to control his/her own fate) Jackson Pollock Critics of “affluent society” Impact of television (many felt excluded from perfect world TV, stereotypes sitcoms portrayed; also, spread news of social and political upheaval), impact of advertising on youth Television: Ernie Kovacs Filmmakers: Nicholas Ray, Elia Kazan, Charlie Chaplin, and Howard Hawks Mad magazine Music: Paul Robeson, Protest Folk Music (mostly suppressed), but Woody Guthrie, Pete Seeger, and Malvina Reynolds best representations Consensus and Conformity in the 1950’s The American Dream “We Like Ike” Conservatism Prosperity Anti-communism—Joseph McCarthy Importance of conformity—housing (Levittown, suburbs), clothing (gray flannel suits, poodle skirts, shirt dresses, saddle shoes, etc.), hair styles, fads (Barbie Dolls, hula hoops) Return to traditional gender roles after World War II Children “seen but not heard” The 1950’s cult of domesticity Role of television in reinforcing image of perfect, homogenized middle class (Father Knows Best, Leave It to Beaver, Ozzie and Harriett, The Ed Sullivan Show, The Roy Rogers & Dale Evans Show) Wholesome Pat Boone Note: May be extensive crossover between categories (e.g., Beatniks—youth Beats—intellectuals) © 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). 24 ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/28/2010 for the course BIOMIC Bio765 taught by Professor Sangte during the Spring '10 term at Eastern Oregon.

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