# s44 - 8 shuffles. Among the many curious patterns, notice...

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Solution to Problem 44 Congratulations to this week’s winners Felice Kelly and Ray Kremer Correct solutions were also received from Nathan Pauli, and Bradley alumnus Brian Laughlin, as well as from Denis Borris, Philippe Fondanaiche, and Robert T. McQuaid. After a little experimentation, you’ll see that the card originally in the i ’ th position will have moved to the position given by the function p(i) defined by p(i) = { 2i - 1 , for i between 1 and 26 2(i-26) , for i between 27 and 52 You can now follow along and see, for example, that card 1 returns to the first spot, while card 2 migrates in order through positions 2 - 3 - 5 - 9 - 17 - 33 - 14 - 27 and then returns to position 2. The following table lists the movement of the cards. 1 - 1 2 - 3 - 5 - 9 - 17 - 33 - 14 - 27 - 2 4 - 7 - 13 - 25 - 49 - 46 - 40 - 28 - 4 6 - 11 - 21 - 41 - 30 - 8 - 15 - 29 - 6 10 - 19 - 37 - 22 - 43 - 34 - 16 - 31- 10 12 - 23 - 45 - 38 - 24 - 47 - 42 - 32 - 12 20 - 39 - 26 - 51 - 50 - 48 - 44 - 36 - 20 18 - 35 - 18 52 - 52 You can immediately conclude that the deck will return to its original state after only

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Unformatted text preview: 8 shuffles. Among the many curious patterns, notice how cards 18 and 35 flip positions after each shuffle. The situation is much different for 54 cards; a similar analysis gives that youll need 52 shuffles in order to return the deck to its initial state. Moreover, each card (other than the top or bottom card) will migrate through each of the other 52 positions of the deck! For the general case, it becomes useful to renumber the deck of n cards from 0 to n-1. The equation for the shuffle then becomes p(i) = 2 i ( modulo n-1) This gives that the number of shuffles is the order of the residue 2 in the group of units, under multiplication, modulo n-1 , from which you can derive the following table for the number of shuffles. n 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 number of shuffles 2 4 3 6 10 12 4 8 18 6 11 20 18 28 5 10 12 36 12 20 14 12 23 21...
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## This note was uploaded on 03/01/2010 for the course MATH 301 taught by Professor Albertodelgado during the Spring '10 term at Bradley.

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s44 - 8 shuffles. Among the many curious patterns, notice...

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