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Chapter 4 - C h a p t e r 4 LearningLearning Theories and...

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3-1 C C h h a a p p t t e e r r 4 4 Learning: Theories and Program Design Learning : Theories and Program Design
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3-2 Introduction Introduction Conditions necessary for learning to occur: opportunities for trainees to practice and receive feedback meaningful training content prerequisites trainees need to successfully complete the program allowing trainees to learn through observation and experience.
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3-3 Introduction Introduction For learning to occur it is important to identify what is to be learned i.e., to identify learning outcomes Understanding learning outcomes is crucial they influence characteristics of the training environment necessary for learning to occur The design of the training program is also important for learning to occur
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3-4 What Is Learning? What Is Learning? Learning Learning is a relatively permanent change in human capabilities that is not a result of growth processes. These capabilities are related to specific learning outcomes.
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3-5 Learning Outcomes Learning Outcomes Verbal information includes names or labels, facts, and bodies of knowledge includes specialized knowledge employees need in their jobs Intellectual skills include concepts and rules critical to solve problems, serve customers, and create products
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3-6 Learning Outcomes Learning Outcomes Motor skills include coordination of physical movements Attitudes combination of beliefs and feeling that pre- dispose a person to behave a certain way important work-related attitudes include job satisfaction, commitment to the organization, and job involvement
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3-7 Learning Outcomes Learning Outcomes Cognitive strategies regulate the process of learning they relate to the learner’s decision regarding: what information to attend to (i.e., pay attention to) how to remember how to solve problems
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3-8 Learning Theories Learning Theories Reinforcement Theory Social Learning Theory Goal Theories Need Theories Expectancy Theory Adult Learning Theory Information Processing Theory
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3-9 Reinforcement Theory Reinforcement Theory Emphasizes that people are motivated to perform or avoid certain behaviors because of past outcomes that have resulted from those behaviors positive reinforcement negative reinforcement extinction punishment
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3-10 Reinforcement Theory Reinforcement Theory From a training perspective, it suggests that the trainer needs to identify what outcomes the learner finds most positive (and negative) for learners to: acquire knowledge change behavior modify skills Trainers then need to link these outcomes to learners acquiring knowledge, skills, or changing behaviors
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3-11 Social Learning Theory Social Learning Theory Emphasizes that people learn by observing other persons (models) whom they believe are credible and knowledgeable
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