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geog final review 2

geog final review 2 - Coastal Environments Significance 2/3...

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Coastal Environments Significance : 2/3 of the world’s population lives on or near the coast; Economic activities such as tourism, shipping, and fishing; Littoral Zone : zone in which marine sediment is moved around on a relatively frequent basis by marine processes Offshore: too deep for waves to stir sediment between the littoral zone and deep water ( not part of littoral zone) Near Shore: Shallow enough for waves to stir sediment ( around 10m deep)(read below) Surf Zone: Where the water changes shape, peaks, and crashes (dependent on size and energy) Swash Zone: More landwards, water rushes up then comes back (^)(skim) Foreshore: inner tidal zone, covered with water, not exposed (may depend on low and high tide) Back Beach (Bermcrest): The part of the beach you lay out on (land zones) (Above and below ) Cliffs: sand dunes Tides : driving force for tides is gravitational attraction of the moon and the sun; they are changes in elevation at the shoreline Tidal Range: distance in elevation between high tide and low tide Flood Tide: water level changes from low to high Ebb Tide: water level is falling during the daily tidal cycle Neap: unusually low tidal range produce during the first and third quarters of the moon with an offsetting pull from the sun Spring: The highest tidal range, which occurs when the moon and sun are in conjunction ( highest high and lowest low) Waves: Height: difference in elevation between the crest and the trough (height is related to energy) Micro=<1 meter Meso=1-4 meter Macro=>4meter Wavelength: the distance between two crests
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Period: the time it takes to travel one wavelength; how long it takes a wave to pass a fixed point Steepness: wave height/wavelength=steepness; Generation: process of producing waves Fetch: the distance of open water for the wind to blow across Wind speed: the faster the wind speed, the more the friction, the higher the wave Duration: the longer the wind blows, the more energy that is transferred, so larger waves Orbital Motion: the circular motion of wave particles in a wave as it moves along Shoaling Transformation: waves enter shallow water, the speed starts to decrease, it loses energy from friction at the bottom, front of the wave moves slower so the back catches up to it, which causes wavelength to decrease, height to increase, and steepness increases rapidly Breaking: final stage of shoaling process where the wave becomes too steep and falls over (1/7) Wave Refraction: the process of waves that concentrates wave energy on headlands and disperses it in coves and bays to try to straighten the coast Alongshore Currents: flows that are parallel to the shoreline , with a net movement in one direction Tsunami: waves with a very large amount of energy caused by a displacing of the surface water Primary Coast: drowned river valley that was glaciated Secondary Coast: coral reef coastlines Erosional Features:
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