ZLM-chapter 1.1

ZLM-chapter 1.1 - Winter 2010/Chem 109A/LZhang Chapter 1.1...

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Winter 2010/Chem 109A/LZhang Chapter 1.1 Electronic Structures and Bonding Chapter 1: Introduction and Review I. Principles of atomic structure (Sec. 1.1-1.2) A. Structure of atoms and atomic symbols _______________ number: no. of protons _______________ number: no. of protons + neutrons _______________: atoms with the same atomic number but different mass numbers H 1 1 H 1 2 H 1 3 B. Atomic Orbitals (sec. 1.5): specific regions of space that electrons occupy. 1. Atomic orbitals s-orbital p-orbitals (d- & f-orbitals) 2. shells -- valence shell 3. relative energies: C. Electronic Configurations (Arrangement of electrons) 1. Aufbau Principle: fill the lowest energy orbital first 2. ___________________ Principle: each orbital can be filled with a maximum of 2e - , & electrons in the same orbital must be of opposite spin. 3. __________ Rule: if two or more empty orbitals of equal energy (degenerate) are available, put one e - in each orbital with the spins parallel until all orbitals are half-full. II. Bond Formation (Sec. 1.3) Octet rule: atom are most stable when valence shell is full or empty (or achieve noble gas electronic configuration) A. Ionic Bond 1. forms between atoms with large electronegativity difference ( Δ EN >=1.8) 2. attain noble gas electronic configuration by the transfer of one or more electrons from one atom to another to form ions (e.g. Na + F - ) 3. The ions formed are attracted together to a large extent by electrostatic force -- energy released B.
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This note was uploaded on 03/01/2010 for the course CHEM 109A taught by Professor Bruice during the Spring '07 term at UCSB.

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ZLM-chapter 1.1 - Winter 2010/Chem 109A/LZhang Chapter 1.1...

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