ZLM-chapter 2

ZLM-chapter 2 - Winter 2010/Chem 109A/LZhang Chapter 2: An...

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Winter 2010/Chem 109A/LZhang Chapter 2: An introduction to Organic Compounds Chapter 2. An introduction to organic compounds I. Alkanes, halides, alcohols, amines, and ethers (2.1) II. Isomers III. Naming Alkanes and Cycloalkanes (Sec. 2.2-2.3) A. Alkanes ( C n H 2n+2 ) - saturated hydrocarbon (only H & C), aliphatic compounds 1. Names of Straight-Chain Alkanes (Homologs C 1 -C 10 ) FORMULA NAME FORMULA NAME CH 4 Methane CH 3 (CH 2 ) 5 CH 3 Heptane CH 3 CH 3 Ethane CH 3 (CH 2 ) 6 CH 3 Octane CH 3 CH 2 CH 3 Propane CH 3 (CH 2 ) 7 CH 3 Nonane CH 3 (CH 2 ) 2 CH 3 Butane CH 3 (CH 2 ) 8 CH 3 Decane CH 3 (CH 2 ) 3 CH 3 Pentane CH 3 (CH 2 ) 9 CH 3 Undecane CH 3 (CH 2 ) 4 CH 3 Hexane CH 3 (CH 2 ) 10 CH 3 Dodecane B. Alkyl Groups 1. when a H atom is removed from an alkane, the part-structure that remains is called an alkyl group (represented by the symbol R) 2. . Primary Secondary Tertiary Quaternary (1°) (2°) (3°) (4°) R C H H R C H R' R C R" R C R"' 3. alkyl groups are named by replacing the - ane ending of the parent alkane by an -yl ending C. Naming Alkanes IUPAC nomenclature (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) Prefix - Parent - Suffix What are the How many What family substituents? carbons in the (functional group)? main chain? (ending name) 1. Find the parent hydrocarbon: a. find the longest continuous carbon chain - use the name of that chain as the parent name H 3 CC H CH 2 3 2 3 C H 2 2 3 e.g. 1 name of parent chain:___________________ FORMULA NAME FORMULA NAME -CH 3 Methyl -CH 2 (CH 2 ) 3 CH 3 Pentyl -CH 2 CH 3 Ethyl -CH 2 (CH 2 ) 4 CH 3 Hexyl -CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 Propyl -CH 2 (CH 2 ) 5 CH 3 Heptyl -CH 2 (CH 2 ) 2 CH 3 Butyl -CH 2 (CH 2 ) 6 CH 3 Octyl
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Winter 2010/Chem 109A/LZhang Chapter 2: An introduction to Organic Compounds b. If two different chains of equal length are present, choose the one with the larger number of branching points as the parent H 3 CC H CH 3 2 2 3 C H 2 3 H 3 H 3 2 2 3 C H 2 3 Yes No e.g. 2 2. Number the atoms in the main chain a. begin at the end nearer to the first branch point , number each carbon atom in the longest chain you identified H 3 C C H CH 2 CH 3 CH 2 CH 3 C H CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 Yes No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 H 3 C C H CH 2 CH 3 CH 2 CH 3 C H CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 1 2 3 4 7 6 5 e.g. 3 b. If there is branching at equal distance away from both ends of the parent chain, begin numbering at the end nearer the second branch point H 3 C C H CH 2 CH 3 CH 2 CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH CH CH 3 CH 2 CH 3 H 3 C C H CH 2
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This note was uploaded on 03/01/2010 for the course CHEM 109A taught by Professor Bruice during the Spring '07 term at UCSB.

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ZLM-chapter 2 - Winter 2010/Chem 109A/LZhang Chapter 2: An...

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