02 - Hybridization: new orbitals formed from combined...

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Unformatted text preview: Hybridization: new orbitals formed from combined atomic orbitals. # of hybrid orbitals = # of atomic orbitals combined We will use three kinds of hybrid orbitals: sp3, sp2 and sp. Bond lengths in alkenes 154 pm 133 pm H 116.6o H CC 121.7 108 pm H CC H H H 109.6 109 pm H H H H Bond angles in alkenes Rules for resonance: 1. All structures have the same # of electrons. 2. Structures obey the rules of covalent bonding: noble gas configuration is usually best 3. The least formal charge is preferred: charge must be on appropriate atoms. 4. 5. electrons and lone pair electrons move - not atoms. Electrons move between p ortitals Arrow pushing = electron pushing to show valence electron redistribution arrows show direction electrons move e move from atom to bond or bond to atom shows bond breaking and/or bond forming arrow goes from negative to positive electron rich nucleophile electron poor electrophile - Arrhenius (1884) Bronsted - Lowry (1923) Lewis acid = increases concentration of H+ base = increases concentration of OH-acid = proton donor base = proton acceptor acid = electron acceptor base = electron donor ...
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02 - Hybridization: new orbitals formed from combined...

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