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PCB4674MidtermFall2009 - PCB 4674 Midterm Exam Fall 2009...

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PCB 4674 Midterm Exam, Fall 2009 1 Please write your answers on your own paper. Label each sheet of paper with ONLY YOUR UF ID#, NOT YOUR NAME. Please print your answers legibly. PLEASE BE CONCISE! Part I. Answer ALL FOUR questions (1-4). Each numbered question is worth 12 points except question 3, which is worth 16 pts. 1. 12 pts. Natural Selection is formally defined as "The covariance between phenotype and fitness". In NO MORE THAN THREE SENTENCES, explain what this means in terms a non-scientist would understand. 2. Many of the results we rely on in evolutionary biology concern the state of the population at genetic equilibrium. a) 8 pts. Explain what is meant by "genetic equilibrium". b) 4 pts. Provide an example in which a population might be at equilibrium with respect to allele frequencies but not with respect to genotype frequencies. 3. Consider a locus under selection (the A locus, naturally) in a population of DIPLOID individuals. a) 4 pts. The A1 is the most-fit allele at the locus under all circumstances, and yet there is genetic variation present at equilibrium. Explain. b) 4 pts. A mutation at a different locus (say, the X locus) permits unfertilized eggs of this species to develop into HAPLOID adults. In diploid populations there is genetic variation at equilibrium; in haploid populations there is no genetic variation at equilibrium. Explain what maintains variation in the diploid populations. c) 4 pts. In the same set of populations as in (b), genetic variation at the B locus is maintained at equilibrium in both haploid and diploid populations. Explain what maintains variation.
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