Unformatted text preview: 1/6/2009 Wetlands
Unit 1 Introduction (Part I) What is a Wetland?
1/6/2009 Mark W. Clark 1 You have all heard about wetlands You have likely all seen wetlands • But what exactly is a wetland and why have wetlands become such a significant part of our environmental policy and the focal point in point protecting our water, soil and biotic resources? 1/6/2009 Mark W. Clark 2
• • Why is it that only 30 years ago wetlands were considered wastelands. wastelands. Large areas were efficiently and effectively drained and to this day significant modifications in hydrology and water quality have resulted resulted from those early efforts. 1/6/2009 Mark W. Clark 3 Mark W. Clark 1 1/6/2009 Coastal Development 1/6/2009 Mark W. Clark 4 Agricultural Conversion 1/6/2009 Mark W. Clark 5 Soil Subsidence 1/6/2009 1/6/2009 Mark W. Clark 6 Mark W. Clark 2 1/6/2009 And yet right now many cultures throughout the world depend on wetlands wetlands for food, fiber, building materials, and economic crops. What are some of the legal issues associated with defining wetlands, wetlands, identifying wetlands, classifying wetlands and what mechanisms exist to exist protect and mitigate for their loses W. Clark 1/6/2009 Mark 8 These are some of the questions we will be dealing with in this course. We will also focus on how wetlands can be used to improve water quality in quality wastewater from sewage treatment facilities, urban stormwater runoff runoff and agricultural runoff.
1/6/2009 Mark W. Clark 9 Mark W. Clark 3 1/6/2009 1/6/2009 Mark W. Clark 10 But before we go into specifics, we first need to define a wetland. I’m sure wetland. you have all been in a wetland, in fact if you have ever been to the beach or stood on the bank of a river or lake you would likely have been been standing in or close to a wetland. 1/6/2009 Mark W. Clark 11
1/6/2009 Mark W. Clark 11 • • Wetlands typically (but not always) occur at the interface or ecotone ecotone between terrestrial upland systems and deepwater aquatic systems. systems. These ecotones can occur along the marine coastline
Mark W. Clark 12 1/6/2009 Mark W. Clark 4 1/6/2009 1/6/2009 Between Rivers and Clark Mark W. adjacent upland 13 1/6/2009 Between Lakes and adjacent uplands Mark W. Clark 14 •But not all wetlands are as clearly bracketed between aquatic and and upland habitat •Some wetlands do not show clear W. Clark adjacent aquatic areas 1/6/2009 Mark 15 Mark W. Clark 5 1/6/2009 1/6/2009 Mark W. Clark Other wetlands do not show clear adjacent uplands 16 •Wetlands are most commonly found in areas with high rainfall and poorly drained soils. •However, wetlands can also occurW. Clark in desert like conditions. 1/6/2009 Mark 17 •Wetlands •However, wetlands 1/6/2009 typically occur in low points of the landscape and along the coastal plain along can also be perched high in alpine conditions. Mark W. Clark 18 Mark W. Clark 6 1/6/2009 1/6/2009 Wetlands can be composed of woody shrubs and trees, often called swamps, or bottomland hardwoods.
Mark W. Clark 19 1/6/2009 Wetlands can also be dominated by herbaceous species often called called marshes, mires, fens or bogs.
Mark W. Clark 20 Wetlands are also found in northern latitudes where frozen conditions can conditions prevail for much of the year 1/6/2009 Mark W. Clark 21 Mark W. Clark 7 1/6/2009 Or in tropical conditions that have not experienced freezing conditions since conditions the last ice age. 1/6/2009 Mark W. Clark 22 1/6/2009 Mark W. Clark 23 “Shortly afterwards began the muskegs, which mostly
stood under water; these we had to cross for miles; think with what misery, every step up to our knees. The whole of this land of the Lapps was mostly muskeg, hinc vocavi styx. Never can the hinc priest so describe hell, because it is no worse. Never have poets been able to picture styx so fowl. Since that is no fouler
1/6/2009 Mark W. Clark 24 Carl Linnaeus, 1932 (noted taxonomist) 24 Mark W. Clark 8 1/6/2009 “[a] horrible desert, the foul damps ascend without ceasing, corrupt the air and corrupt render it unfit for respiration… Never was Rum, that cordial of Life, found more necessary than in this Dirty Place”.
Colonel William Byrd III (1674-1744) “Historie of the Dividing Line Betwixt Virginia and (1674North Carolina” in The Westover Manuscripts, written 1728-1736, Petersburg, VA; E. 17281/6/2009 25 and J. C. Ruffin, printers 1841, 143 Mark W. Clark pages. 1/6/2009 Mark W. Clark http://water.usgs.gov/nwsum/WSP2425/images/fig04.gif 26 http://water.usgs.gov/nwsum/WSP2425/images/fig06.gif Mark W. Clark 9 1/6/2009 Midwest and Tile Drainage 1/6/2009 Mark W. Clark 28 1/6/2009 Mark W. Clark 30 Mark W. Clark 10 1/6/2009 Arkansas wetlands loss (21% remaining) 1870 Present day 1/6/2009 Mark W. Clark 31 1/6/2009 Mark W. Clark http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/othrdata/wetloss/fig_3_4.htm 32 Along with this perception considerable acreage of wetlands was destroyed 1/6/2009 Mark W. Clark 33 Mark W. Clark 11 1/6/2009 EXTENT AND LOCATION OF ARTIFICIALLY DRAINED AGRICULTURAL LAND IN THE UNITED STATES, 1985 (Courtesy of U.S. Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service.) Frayer et al. estimated that 87 percent of the wetland losses from the mid-1950's to the mid-1970's were due to agricultural conversion. 1/6/2009 Mark W. Clark 34 http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/othrdata/wetloss/figure5.htm South Florida Ecosystems
1900 1900 1940 1970 1/6/2009 Mark W. Clark 35 The miracle of the light pours over the green and brown expanse of sawgrass and of water-shining and slow moving below, waterthe grass and water that is the meaning and central fact of the Everglades of Florida
Marjory Mark W. Clark Stonemena Douglas, The Everglades: River of Grass 36 Mark W. Clark 12 1/6/2009 As our interest in protecting these natural resources grew, defining these communities for legal purposes became increasingly important and overtime many definitions at the local, state, and federal level developed.
1/6/2009 Mark W. Clark 37 WETLAND DEFINITION
"A WETLAND IS RECOGNIZED AS A SITE WHERE THE WATER-TABLE IS NEAR, WATERAT, OR ABOVE THE SURFACE OF THE GROUND FOR AT LEAST SOME PORTION OF THE YEAR”
Source: Goodwin and Niering, 1975. Inland wetlands of the U. S., National S., Park Service 1/6/2009 Mark W. Clark 38 WETLAND DEFINITION
"...WETLANDS ARE AREAS THAT ARE INUNDATED OR SATURATED BY SURFACE OR GROUND WATER AT A FREQUENCY AND DURATION SUFFICIENT TO SUPPORT AND THAT UNDER NORMAL CIRCUMSTANCES DO SUPPORT - A PREVALANCE OF VEGETATION TYPICALLY ADAPTED FOR LIFE IN SATURATED SOIL CONDITIONS”
Source: President Carter, Executive Order, May 1977, as per U. S. Source: S. Army Corps of Engineers
1/6/2009 Mark W. Clark 39 Mark W. Clark 13 1/6/2009 WETLAND DEFINITION
"...A WETLAND IS DESCRIBED AS..LAND WHERE WATER IS THE DOMINANT FACTOR DETERMINING THE NATURE OF DEVELOPMENT AND THE TYPES OF PLANT AND ANIMAL COMMUNITIES LIVING IN THE SOIL AND ON ITS SURFACE." "... THE SINGLE FEATURE THAT MOST WETLANDS SHARE IS SOIL THAT, AT LEAST PERIODICALLY,IS SATURATED WITH WATER.“
Source: U. S. Fish and Wildlife. Cowardin et al. 1977: Classification of Classification wetlands and deep water habitats of the U. S., p 3. 1/6/2009 Mark W. Clark 40 WETLAND DEFINITION
"WETLANDS ARE DEFINED AS THOSE AREAS...WHERE THERE IS SEASONAL OR INTERMITTENT INUNDATION AND SATURATION WITH PERIODS OF DRY EXPOSED SOIL AND WHICH IS PREDOMINANTLY VEGETATED."
Source: State of Florida Statutes. Proposed revisions chapters 17-3, 4 and 6, 17 March 1980. Wetlands include: swamps, marshes, bogs, and areas such as sloughs, potholes, sloughs, sinkholes, wet meadows, river overflows, mudflats, natural ponds and some artificial impoundments. 1/6/2009 Mark W. Clark 41 WETLAND DEFINITION
• The minimum essential characteristics of a wetland are recurrent, sustained inundation or saturation at or near the surface and the presence of physical, chemical, and biological features reflective of recurrent, sustained inundation or saturation. Common diagnostic features of wetlands are hydric soils Common and hydrophytic vegetation. These features will be present except where specific physico-chemical, biotic, physicoor anthropogenic factors have removed them or prevented their development. National Research Council, 1995
1/6/2009 Mark W. Clark 42 Mark W. Clark 14 1/6/2009 Main Characteristics of Wetlands
Wetlands lie between terrestrial (upland) and aquatic (water) system, and have unique characteristics. • Wetlands are flooded or have saturated soils for significant periods of time during the growing season. • Presence of unique vegetation that is adapted to saturated soil conditions.
1/6/2009 Mark W. Clark 43 1/6/2009 Drained Hydrology Mark W. Clark Flooded 44 Hydric Soils 1/6/2009 Mark W. Clark 45 Mark W. Clark 15 1/6/2009 Hydrophytic Vegetation 1/6/2009 Mark W. Clark 46 1/6/2009 Vegetation Mark W. Clark 47 Wetlands
Unit 1 Introduction (Part II) Functions and Values 1/6/2009 Mark W. Clark 48 Mark W. Clark 16 ...
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