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Unformatted text preview: 1/7/2009 Wetlands
Unit 1 Introduction (Part II) Functions and Values 1/7/2009 Mark W. Clark 1 Functions vs. Values Values - are associated with goods and services that wetlands provide. Functions -are natural processes that exist regardless of their perceived value to society. Societal values of wetlands can change through time, function of wetlands do not change. Society does not value all wetland functions, however education, research, and public policy promote the linkages and influence the perceptions of value by society.
1/7/2009 Mark W. Clark 2 Integrating Wetland Functions in the Landscape
Loss of wetlands results in loss of desirable functions in the landscape
Flooding, loss of habitat, degraded water quality, etc. Restoring, enhancing, constructing wetlands in the landscape should replace these functions.
Flood control, improved water quality, improved habitat.
1/7/2009 Mark W. Clark 3 Mark W. Clark 1 1/7/2009 Wetland Functions
Hydrology Water storage Aquifer (groundwater) recharge Flood protection Medium to transport nutrients and contaminants 1/7/2009 Mark W. Clark 4 Water Supply 1/7/2009 Mark W. Clark 5 Flood Control 1/7/2009 Mark W. Clark 6 Mark W. Clark 2 1/7/2009 Water Quality 1/7/2009 Mark W. Clark 7 Water Quality Wetlands can act as a sink for contaminants removing them from surface water. Wetlands can act as a transformer of contaminants resulting in different, often less toxic compounds. Wetlands can provide long-term storage of longcontaminants or through transformations release them to the atmosphere
Mark W. Clark 8 1/7/2009 Wetland Value to Agricultural Landowner (new paradigm)
Clean Water Act requires water quality concerns to be addressed and limitation of contaminant loads into impaired use water bodies (TMDL). Agriculture needs to address water quality impacts Society wants to maintain quality of life (in part by protecting wetlands for value) Integrated wetlands in agricultural landscape can provide societal values and minimize agricultural impacts to water quality.
1/7/2009 Mark W. Clark 9 Mark W. Clark 3 1/7/2009 Wetland Related Agricultural BMP's Vegetated swales Riparian buffers Sedimentation basins 1/7/2009 Mark W. Clark 10 1/7/2009 Mark W. Clark 11 1/7/2009 Mark W. Clark 12 Mark W. Clark 4 1/7/2009 Lake Okeechobee Priority Basins
Wetlands Coverage (NWI)
Total Land area NWI Wetlands 121,087 ha 21,649 ha 18% of area 1/7/2009 Mark W. Clark 13 Phosphorus Retention and Storage by Isolated and Constructed Wetlands in the Lake Okeechobee Basin
1/7/2009 Mark W. Clark 14 All Shapes and Sizes 1/7/2009 Mark W. Clark 15 Mark W. Clark 5 1/7/2009 1/7/2009 Mark W. Clark 16 Soil Total Phosphorus
120 110 100 90 80 70 Soil TP, g/m2 60 50 > 50% more P g 40 30 20 10 0 -10 Center Edge Upland Significant differences in soil P were found among sampling zones. Core sampling zones were significantly greater than Edge or Upland zones.
1/7/2009 Mark W. Clark 17 1/7/2009 Mark W. Clark 18 Mark W. Clark 6 1/7/2009 Stormwater Treatment Areas 1/7/2009 Mark W. Clark 19 1/7/2009 Mark W. Clark 20 Incentives for Restoration
(Wetland Reserve Program)
Goals: achieve the greatest wetland functions and values, along with optimum wildlife habitat on every acre enrolled. Three program levels, 10 yr, 30 yr and permanent easements Currently 1,074,000 acres enrolled 2002 act reauthorized up to 2,275,000 acres
1/7/2009 Mark W. Clark 21 Mark W. Clark 7 1/7/2009 Urban Stormwater Wetlands 1/7/2009 Mark W. Clark 22 1/7/2009 Conventional Design
Mark W. Clark 23 Stormwater Ecological Enhancement Project Pre-Enhancement Contour and Vegetation Pre- Mark W. Clark 8 1/7/2009 Natural Recruitment 2002 2000 1/7/2009 Mark W. Clark 27 Mark W. Clark 9 1/7/2009 "Pocket" Wetland System 1/7/2009 Storage Allocation 30% pool, 70% marsh Mark W. Clark Area Allocation 40% low marsh, 50% high marsh, 10% pool 28 Extended Detention Wetland 1/7/2009 Storage Allocation 20% pool, 30% marsh, 50% ED Mark W. Clark Area Allocation 35% low marsh, 45% high marsh, 20% pool 29 Modified Maintenance After 1 year Pond mowed to waters edge = 21 species Ponds with no mow buffer = 62-85 species
1/7/2009 Mark W. Clark 30 Mark W. Clark 10 1/7/2009 Municipal and Septic Wastewater Treatment 1/7/2009 Mark W. Clark 31 Single Family
(360 gal / day) 1/7/2009 Mark W. Clark 32 Waldo Treatment Wetland 60,000 gal/day 1/7/2009 Mark W. Clark 33 Mark W. Clark 11 1/7/2009 Orlando Wetlands Park
30 million gallons /day 1/7/2009 Mark W. Clark 34 Experimental Facility 1/7/2009 Mark W. Clark 35 1/7/2009 Wildlife Habitat
Mark W. Clark 36 Mark W. Clark 12 1/7/2009 1/7/2009 Vegetative Habitat
Mark W. Clark 37 1/7/2009 Habitat
Mark W. Clark 38 Wetland Functions
Wildlife Habitat For both plants and wildlife, wetlands provide unique habitat areas often rich in food, breeding, and nesting resources. These unique habitats provide a variety of wildlife requirements and often result in a significant increase in local and regional biodiversity. One third of Threatened and Endangered bird species are dependent on only 5% of the US land area.
1/7/2009 Mark W. Clark 39 Mark W. Clark 13 1/7/2009 Food Web Connections 1/7/2009 Mark W. Clark 40 Food Web Connections 1/7/2009 Mark W. Clark 41 Food Web Connections 1/7/2009 Mark W. Clark 42 Mark W. Clark 14 1/7/2009 Food Web Connections 1/7/2009 Mark W. Clark 43 Food Web Connections Vegetation provides forage for a variety of animals Detrital material provides the base of the detrital food chain Wetlands also provide valuable protective nursery grounds for fish and waterfowl Estimated 95% of marine fish and shellfish species dependant on wetlands during some life stage
1/7/2009 Mark W. Clark 44 Recreation 1/7/2009 Mark W. Clark 45 Mark W. Clark 15 1/7/2009 Recreation 1/7/2009 Mark W. Clark 46 Recreation 1/7/2009 Mark W. Clark 47 Education 1/7/2009 Mark W. Clark 48 Mark W. Clark 16 1/7/2009 Education 1/7/2009 Mark W. Clark 49 Education 1/7/2009 Mark W. Clark 50 Research 1/7/2009 Mark W. Clark 51 Mark W. Clark 17 1/7/2009 Wetland Values
1. Water Quality 2. Water Supply 3. Habitat 4. Food Web Connections 5. Flood Control 6. Recreation 7. Education 8. Archeological 1/7/2009 Mark W. Clark 52 Interdisciplinary Science Summary Wetlands can occur in a number of landscape positions, latitudes, and forms. Defining wetlands is difficult due to this diversity of wetland types and locations. Three principal components of a wetland are hydrology, hydric soil and hydrophytic vegetation. Of the +220 million acres of wetlands within the contiguous United States in the late 1700's, approximately 53% have been destroyed, mostly the result of agricultural conversion.
Mark W. Clark 54 1/7/2009 Mark W. Clark 18 1/7/2009 Summary Our perception of wetlands has changed significantly as we began to understand the following values of wetlands: Water Quality Water Supply Habitat Food Web Connections Flood Control Recreation Education Archeological Opportunity to integrate wetlands into the landscape to enhance ecosystem function are numerous. Wetland science is interdisciplinary and requires expertise and collaborative efforts among multiple fields to be fully understood.
1/7/2009 Mark W. Clark 55 Homework Assignment
Chapters 1 and 2 in Text Find a wetlands news article and briefly explain how that article relates to societies change in values toward wetlands. Turn in the article and your wetlands. brief interpretation of value on Tuesday 1/13.
1/7/2009 Mark W. Clark 56 Groups sue over South Florida road project
Last Update: 12/21/2004 8:40:22 AM Concerns Delay Veterans Cemetery Construction Cemetery Would Be First Of Its Kind In South Florida POSTED: 7:27 pm EST January 5, 2005 UPDATED: 7:35 pm EST January 5, 2005 BOYNTON BEACH, Fla. -- Officials say a veterans' cemetery designated for a 313acre site in Palm Beach County will not open until late this year at the earliest. Construction has yet to begin on the cemetery, which would be the first of its kind in South Florida. Delays have been blamed on the summer's four hurricanes and concerns that the land sits on wetlands that are home to an endangered species, the wood stork. MIAMI (AP) - Environmental groups are suing to prevent a massive road project along a stretch of U.S. 1 that connects Key Largo to the mainland. The groups -- who sued yesterday in federal court in Miami -- say the work would imperil wildlife and destroy more than 100 acres of wetlands. 1/7/2009 Mark W. Clark 57 Mark W. Clark 19 ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/01/2010 for the course PCB 4683 taught by Professor Williams,j during the Spring '08 term at University of Central Florida.
- Spring '08