Biogeochemistry-7 Biogeochemistry in Perspective Part 3

Biogeochemistry-7 Biogeochemistry in Perspective Part 3 -...

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Unformatted text preview: Hydrologic Restoration of Isolated Wetlands in the Okeechobee Watershed: Cuyahoga River 1969 Protection of Public Water Resources As part of the Federal Clean Water Act 1972, As USEPA requested states to develop designated uses for waters of the state (lakes, reservoirs, rivers, streams, estuaries and wetlands) and establish criteria that would protect those designated uses. If designated use was not being met, appropriate If corrective action was to be implemented. 1 State Surface Water Designated Uses Class I – Potable Water Supplies Class Class II – Shellfish Propagation or Harvesting Class Class III – Recreation, Propagation and Maintenance of Class a Healthy, Well-Balanced Population of Fish and WellWildlife Class IV – Agricultural Water Supplies Class Class V – Navigation, Utility and Industrial Use Class F.A.C. Chapter 62-302 Surface Water Quality Standards 62http://www.dep.state.fl.us/legal/rules/shared/62-302.pdf http://www.dep.state.fl.us/legal/rules/shared/62- Water Quality Criteria Criteria Criteria A standard, rule, or test on which a judgment or standard, decision can be based Concentration or measurement that is protective of Concentration the intended uses of the water Types of Criteria: Types Numeric Numeric Narrative Narrative Assessment of State Water Quality Biannual evaluation of state water quality Biannual 305(b) list sent to USEPA indicating those water 305(b) bodies that “potentially do not attain” attain” designated use. 2 What if a Water Body is Listed? (303(d) list ) Strategic Monitoring, verification of listing as Strategic impaired and to collect data for TMDL development Develop and Adopt TMDL, prioritization of Develop impaired waters then development and adoption of TMDL for basin. Developing Basin Management Action Plan Developing (BMAP), plan specifying how pollutant loadings from point and nonpoint sources of pollution will be allocated and reduced in order to meet TMDL requirements. Implementing Watershed Management Plans Implementing Iterative Process Iterative Water Quality Criteria for Impaired Water Bodies If the receiving water body has been determined If to be impaired, the applicant must demonstrate that the project will result in a net improvement for the parameter for which the water body is impaired pursuant to [12.2 A.H.] Quality of State Waters Florida Water Quality Assessment 2002 305(b) report 3 Estuary Impacts Florida Water Quality Assessment 2002 305(b) report Lake Impacts Florida Water Quality Assessment 2002 305(b) report Stream Impacts Florida Water Quality Assessment 2002 305(b) report 4 Effect of Cumulative Nonpoint Sources “After trending downward for 20 years, beginning in 2000 phosphorus levels again began moving upward, likely due to the cumulative impacts of nonpoint source pollution associated with increased population and development.” FDEP Integrated Water Quality Assessment for Florida:2006 305(b) Report and 303(d) List Update Numeric Criteria and TMDL for Lake Okeechobee Lake Okeechobee was listed in 1998 as being Lake use impaired by nutrients (particularly, phosphorus), dissolved oxygen, un-ionized unammonia, chlorides, coliforms, and iron. (FDEP) Protective numeric nutrient criteria of 40 ppb Protective total phosphorus was established in the pelagic zone of the lake zone Corresponding TMDL set at 140 metric tons Corresponding Total P Loads (in metric tons) to Lake Okeechobee 1991-2002 1991Year 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Measured Load 445 388 296 580 683 200 470 780 670 169 607 543 Long-term Load (5-yr Long(5moving average) 415 393 375 421 478 430 446 543 561 458 539 554 Lake Okeechobee Protection Plan, 2003 5 Sources of Phosphorus in Watershed 98% of phosphorus imported to the watershed supports 98% agricultural activities (Fluck et al. 1992). fertilizers account for 73% fertilizers dairy feed accounts for 16%, dairy beef feed supplements, human food and detergents account for the remaining beef 11%, 2% of those P imports support human activities. Land use responsible for the largest percentages of annual Land phosphorus imports to the watershed include. improved pasture (47% of total imports), improved sugar mills (15%) sugar dairies (14%) dairies sugarcane fields (13%) sugarcane truck crops (7%) truck Annually, an average of 8% of the net phosphorus imported to Annually, the watershed reaches Lake Okeechobee Four Priority Sub-basins Sub12% of watershed 12% 35% of phosphorus 35% 6 Source Control and Regional Treatment Efforts Lake Okeechobee Protection Plan, 2003 Wetlands within the Priority Basins Area (ha) Wetland Area 21,649 % of Basin 18% ¯ nonriparian riparian Hydrologic Connectivity Riparian Nonripairian Community Type Emergent Marsh Forested Shrub Scrub Other 15,748 3,259 1,551 1,091 73% 15% 7% 5% Lake Okeechobee basins 8,926 12,723 41% 59% 0 5 10 20 Kilometers Drainage of Nonriparian Wetlands 7 Extent of Drainage Dairy Improved Pasture Unimproved Pasture 40% 72% 45% Sampling Locations Dairy Forested/Scrub Emergent Marsh Improved pastures Forested/Scrub Emergent Marsh Forested/Scrub Emergent Marsh Total Unimproved pastures/ rangeland 1 11 118 4 81 6 15 Sampling Protocol U E C U center edge E C E upland U C C E U 8 Soil Total Phosphorus by Landuse 120 110 100 90 80 SoilTP g/m2 TP, g/m2 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 -10 Dairy Improved Pasture Landuse Unimproved Pasture 20.2 + 1.27 b 19.1 + 2.78 b 36.7 + 3.52 a Landuse Dairy sites had significantly greater soil phosphorus levels than Improved Pasture or Unimproved Pasture landuse types. Soil Total Phosphorus by Sampling Zone 120 110 100 90 80 TP g/m2 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 -10 34.4 ± 2.4 a 23.0 ± 2.2 b 19.4 ± 1.9 b Center Edge Upland Sampling zone Center wetland zones had significantly higher phosphorus than Edge or Upland zones. Phosphorus Cycle in wetlands Plant biomass P Inflow Litterfall . Periphyton P PIP Outflow DIP POP DOP DIP AEROBIC Peat accretion DIP DOP DIP PIP [Fe, Al or Cabound P] ANAEROBIC DOP POP Adsorbed P 9 Distribution of Organic Matter, Iron and Aluminum in Wetlands Organic Matter % Oxalate extractable Iron (g/m2) 45.2 + 4.5 a 69.1 + 10.8 b 48.8 + 5.4 a Oxalate extractable Aluminum (g/m2) 33.3 + 2.5 a 38.8 + 4.1 a 49.7 + 6.9 a Center Edge Upland 26.3 + 1.9 a 16.2 + 1.2 b 11.12 + 0.7 c Significantly greater Organic matter content in Core and Edge sampling areas. sampling Iron and aluminum were more prevalent in the upland and edge sampling zones. sampling Effect of Hydrologic Restoration upland edge upland center edge upland edge center edge upland Change in Phosphorous Storage Capacity Dairy (g m-2 ) Improved Unimproved Pasture Pasture ( g m-2 ) ( g m-2 ) Edges become Centers 7.2 + 7.7 12.4 + 3.4 10.1 + 8.5 10.6 + 8.4 12.4 + 8.6 Uplands become Edges Uplands become Centers 1.33 + 2.9 0.86 + 6.9 13.7 + 3.6 13.3 + 6.7 Matched pair analysis by site 10 Basin Wide Increase in Soil Storage Capacity due to Hydrologic Restoration Total Ditched area (ha) (%) Upland >Edge Edge > Center Increased Phosphorus Storage Capacity (kg) 5% (293 ha) 10% (588 ha) 20% (1176 ha) ----- ( g m-2 )----_ ----_ Dairy Improved 899 6,337 40% 72% 45% 10.1 1.33 0.86 7.21 12.4 12.4 1,555 15,661 3,173 3,111 31,323 6,346 40,779 6,221 62,645 12,692 81,558 Unimproved 2,127 Total 20,389 Unanswered Questions Unknown rate of soil (P) accumulation – Unknown influenced by grazing. Uncertainty in how much accumulation can Uncertainty occur before new equilibrium is reached. Uncertainty in hydrologic isolation of wetland Uncertainty relative to surrounding groundwater. Uncertainty in short-term release of P from Uncertainty shortredox sensitive compounds during change in hydrologic regime. Florida Ranchlands Environmental Services Project (FRESP) “Pay for Performance” program to compensate Performance” landowners for: Water storage Water Phosphorous storage Phosphorous Wildlife habitat Wildlife Documentation of services? Documentation Cost effective? Cost In perpetuity? In 11 ...
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