19-COGS11-mind-body-and-disease

19-COGS11-mind-body-and-disease - Stress Disorders The...

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Stress Disorders Mind-Body The Interaction i i in Disease M ET B l Ph D Mary ET Boyle, Ph.D. Department of Cognitive Science Minds and Brains
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Mind and physical illness... • Mind plays an important role in physical illness • Early days of medicine: ancient Greeks • Mind affects course of illness Minds and Brains
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After antibiotics... • New assumption • Infection, inflammatory disease • Elimination of foreign organism or agent • Elimination of foreign organism or agent that causes illness • Ignored the fact that the body can • Ignored the fact that the body can influence susceptibility to disease Minds and Brains
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Relationship between immune system... • Network that allows the brain and immune system to signal to each other. • Continuous and rapid • Immune system chemicals signal the brain • Brain sends chemicals back to immune system to restrain it system to restrain it. Minds and Brains
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Disruption of this communication system... • Disruption by: – Inherited Exacerbates the diseases that Inherited – Drugs Toxic substances Exacerbates the diseases that these systems guard against: – Toxic substances – Surgery Inflammatory autoimmune and Inflammatory, autoimmune, and associated mood disorders Minds and Brains
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Three components of an emotional response: behavioral autonomic hormonal •Prepare • Muscular • Facilitate the behaviors •Sympathetic • Reinforce •Adrenal medulla • Attack posture of a dog Nervous System activated • Epinephrine & norepinephrine C h d ff t h lth Minds and Brains Can have an adverse effect on health.
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How is homeostasis maintained? • Brain responds – threatening situations with stress • Immune system responds – Pathogens and foreign molecules A substantial proportion of human cellular of human cellular machinery is dedicated to maintaining it Minds and Brains
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4 Levels of Homeostatic Regulation l fl 1 •Internal reflexes; organs regulate their own function 2 •Autonomic nervous system and endocrine system •Brainstem and hypothalamus 3 •Higher brain centers 4 ; integrate emotional activity , memory, awareness to modulate output from the brainstem & hypothalamus Minds and Brains
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Hypothalamus Pituitary gland N. tractus solitarius Locus ceruleus Lymph node Brain stem Thymus Adrenal gland Spleen Kidney Vagus nerve Minds and Brains Bone Marrow Liver
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The stress response... M b l d l • Physiological changes Must be regulated or else... – Focused attention – Fear Disorders emerge: arousal – Flight or fight • Inhibitory behaviors thought & feeling Inhibitory behaviors – Feeding – Sex Sex – sleep Minds and Brains
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The immune system response... • Bar pathogens from body • Recognize and destroy those that do • Neutralize dangerous toxins • Facilitate repair of damages/worn • Facilitate repair of damages/worn tissues Di f b l ll • Dispose of abnormal cells Its response is so POWERFUL it needs constant regulation!!
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