20-COGS11-Autism - Autism: Autism: Theory of Mind Theory of...

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Unformatted text preview: Autism: Autism: Theory of Mind Theory of Mind Mary ET Boyle, Ph.D. y y , Department of Cognitive Science UCSD Autism: Is the most severe childhood neuropsychiatric condition diagnosed today. neuropsychiatric condition diagnosed today. Speech and communication Social functioning imagination Repetitive Restricted interests Complex behavioral disability abnormalities behaviors M:F ratio: 4:1 0.6% population pp g y appears during the first three years of life American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.), Autistic Spectrum Disorders Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) Autistic Disorder Asperger's Disorder Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (CDD) Rett's Disorder PDDNot Otherwise Specified (PDDNOS) Insistence on sameness; resistance to change Difficulty in expressing needs; uses gestures or pointing instead of words Repeating words or phrases in place of normal, responsive language Laughing, crying, showing distress for reasons not apparent to others Prefers to be alone; aloof manner May not want to cuddle or be cuddled. Little or no eye contact. Unresponsive to normal teaching methods Sustained odd play S i Spins objects bj t Inappropriate attachments to objects. Apparent oversensitivity or undersensitivity to pain. N No real fears of danger lf fd Noticeable physical overactivity or extreme under activity. activity Uneven gross/fine motor skills. Not responsive to verbal cues; acts as if deaf although hearing tests in normal range. Language Development Language Development Peculiar delayed use of & sounds echolalia deviant and and words Social Development Social Development Physical and emotional emotional distance from others. others Failure to develop social develop social attachments Difficulties in iffi l i i reacting to or recognizing ii other people's feelings. f li Lack of cooperative group play Intellectual Development Intellectual Development May y perform above above average on memory or 2535% p spatial tasks have IQ > 70 have IQ > 70 Poor on verbal b l y ability May be talented in talented in music or drawing d Diagnosing Autism Diagnosing Autism New tests: Childhood Autism rating scale (CARS) Questionnaire Two year old screening i 5 behaviors: b bbli (1 ) babbling (1 yr) gesturing (1 yr) Single words (16 mo) Single words (16 mo) Twoword phrases (24 mo) Any loss of social skill (any age) Any loss of social skill (any age) The savant is an individual with an islet of outstanding skill in one area, which can include calendar calculation, , musical or artistic competence, often in the presence of modest or even presence of modest or even low general intellectual ability. Common reports of sensory abnormalities, C f b li i which suggest heightened sensitivity to minute differences between stimuli, be they in sound, differences between stimuli be they in sound sight, taste or touch. term `autism' is used to describe all individuals on the autistic spectrum individuals on the autistic spectrum anatomical studies of the brain in autism are based on lowfunctioning individuals behavioral findings are based on high are based on high functioning individuals st 1 described Leo Kanner (1943) Hans Asperger (1944) Explanation: "Refrigerator mother" Genetic Environment The most consistent finding about the autistic brain to have emerged in recent years is that it is on average larger and heavier than the normal brain. Importantly, the increased size is not evident from i i t id t f birth, but from ca. 24 years. A reason for this increase could be a failure of the normal pruning process that normal pruning process that occurs several times during development after an initial wave of proliferation of wave of proliferation of synapses. Differential growth pattern: The frontal cortex and temporal cortex of the autistic brain grow quickly during the first two years of life but then show little or not increase in size f lif b h h li l i i i during the next four years The amygdala has an abnormal growth pattern: The amygdala has an abnormal growth pattern: At 4 years of age it is larger At adulthood it is normal size BUT fewer neurons Growth pattern of lower order regions of the cerebral cortex primary visual cortex and extrastriate cortex are relatively normal in the autistic brain. White matter problems, too. White matter problems too Volume of white Volume of white Volume of white Volume of white matter containing matter short-range h t axons was was increased containing long range axons lower. lower Herbert , et al. Annals of Neurology (2004) and Courchesne, et. al. Neuron (2007) Theory of Mind deficit: A fault in one component of the p social brain can lead to the inability to understand certain basic aspects to understand certain basic aspects of communication. mindblindness or mentalizing f il t li i failure Children were shown that Sally had a Children were shown that Sally had a basket and Ann a box. Sally puts a marble in her basket and goes outside. While she is outside, naughty Ann moves Sally's marble to her own basket. S ll ' bl t h b k t Sally then comes back in and wants to Sally then comes back in and wants to play with her marble. Children were asked, `where will Sally look for her marble?' f h bl ?' Frith, U. "Mind Blindness and the Brain in Autism", Neuron, Vol. 32, 969979 To a normally developing 4yearold child, the answer is clear: Sally will look for her marble where she thinks it is and not she thinks it is and not where it really is now. Furthermore, the normally developing child can reason that Sally will look in her basket because this is where she put it and she does not know that it has been moved. 80% of children with autism, with a mental age g equivalent to a 4 yearold or above, failed to answer this question correctly Baron Cohen, S., Leslie, A. & Frith, U. 1985 BaronCohen, S., Leslie, A. & Frith, U. 1985 Does the autistic child have a `theory of mind'? Cognition 21, 3746. Individuals with autism do not activate the face area of the fusiform gyrus that is reliably activated by normal individuals when looking at faces as opposed to objects. bj Task A: Task A: Male or Female? Task B: T kB What is mental state? Male Female Results: High functioning High functioning autistic and AS adults could not perform the task. They also showed less extensive activation in frontal regions and no activation in the activation in the amygdala. Male Female The slices containing the FG are highlighted in green and amygdala in red. Right and left are reversed by radiological convention. Because of DD's expertise for individuating Digimon and his deficit in individuating his deficit in individuating faces, there was hypoactivation of the FFA to familiar and unfamiliar faces (compared f ili f ( d to objects) but Digimon elicited activity in the area of the FG that is normally y recruited for faces. The middle region of DD's FG responded more to Digimon and masked Digimon and masked Digimon than to familiar and unfamiliar faces and nonface objects. Oxytocin is is... nineaminoacid peptide synthesized in the hypothalamus released into the bloodstream receptor binding sites in the limbic system Affliliative behaviors... Sexual behavior Mother infant Motherinfant Adultadult pairing Separation distress p Feeding & Grooming Feeding & Grooming Stress response Oxytocin knockout mice fail to recognize familiar conspecifics after repeated social exposures, despite normal olfactory and spatial learning abilities. Oxytocin treatment fully restores social recognition. It was demonstrated that oxytocin acts in the medial amygdala during the initial exposure to facilitate social recognition. i iti l t f ilit t i l iti Intranasal oxytocin or placebo was administered to male university students playing "the trust game," in which participants make decisions about transferring money to i i k d ii b f i an anonymous player; trusting the other player can lead to higher payoffs for both players because the money is to higher payoffs for both players because the money is tripled when transferred; but one runs the risk that the other player might violate one's trust and not share his or p y g her earnings. ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/02/2010 for the course COGSCI 11 taught by Professor Maryb. during the Spring '10 term at UCSD.

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