NAGPRA - Law/guidelines for archaeology. It gives back to history. Ex: if native americans
ask for something back that belongs to them, the museum must give it back
Diachronic- pertaining to phenomena as they occur or change over a period of time; a chrono-
Synchronic- Pertaining to phenomena at one point in time; concurrent perspective
Anaerobic- without oxygen
Artifact- a discrete and portable object in the archaeological record whose characteristics res-
ults wholly or in part from human activity; artifacts are individually assignable to ceramic, lithic,
metal, organic, or other categories.
Francis McMannamon- emphasized public outreach.
Frederick Ward Putnam- 1st chair of anthropology dept @ berkeley.
Kashaya Pomo- Indigenous people living in san fransisco
Ecofact- non-artifactual natural remains that have cultural relevance; includes both organic
and inorganic remains
Feature- Nonportable archaeological remain that cannot be recovered from matrix without
destroying or altering its orginial form.
archaeological site- a spatial cluster of any combination of artifacts, features, and ecofacts; ba-
sic working unit of an archaeological investigation
Primary context- 1. (Use-related) artifacts recovered from the place they were acquired, made,
or used by humans in the past. 2. (transposed) artifacts/ecofacts deposited away from where they
were acquired, made or used.
Secondary context- when provenience, association, and matrix have been altered by human or
Matrix- The physical medium that surrounds, supports or holds archaeological data
Provenience- the 3d location of archaeological data within or on the matrix at the time of dis-
Behavioral Processes- Human activities (including acquisition, manufacture, use, and depos-
ition behavior) that produce tangible archaeological remains.
Organic artifacts- artifacts derived from living things, including materials such as wood, bone,
horn, fiber, horn, and hide.
Inorganic artifacts- artifacts derived from non-living sources.
Transformational Processes- Conditions and events that affect archaeological data from the
time of deposition to the time of recovery. These transformations could be either caused by nat-
ural phenomena (decay, animal disturbance, erosion, etc) or by humans (plowing, looting, etc)
Archaeological record- the physical remains produced by past human activities, which are
sought, recovered, studied, and interpreted by archaeologists to reconstruct the past
Association- occurrence of an item of archaeological data adjacent to another and in or on the