Abu Lughod Rabat

Abu Lughod Rabat - P RINCETON S TUDIES O N T HE N EAR E AST...

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PRINCETON STUDIES ON THE NEAR EAST CRfl»flIl> URBAN APARTHEID IN MOROCCO byJanet L. Abu-Lughod PRINCETON UNIVERSITY PRESS PRINCETON, NEW JERSEY ~
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130 T RABAT CIRCA 19 0 0 I ! -VIIIIII- treats for the numerous religious brotherhoods). (See Mercier, 1906a:99-1 95 for details.) Given this elaborate system of administration and control, it is difficult to reconcile the contention ofmany orientalists that Islamic cities lacked coherent governance with our picture of Rabat as she was poised "on the eve." Indeed, Mercier concluded that "all ofthe w heels ofthe machine exist" in order to administer the city. In tell- ing fashion, however, he completed that statement with the reveal- ing phrase that "all that is lacking is the engine driver" (1906:367). In his view, the "engine driver" was to be French. In 1907 French troops lay just offshore, waiting to take up what France referred to as the "mission civilisatrice," a variation ofthe white man's burden. The Moroccans, needless to say, did not share this definition of the situation. THE ORIGINS OF URBAN APARTHEID [Lyautey' s urban planning I included one essential con- dition: the complctc separation of European agglomera- tions from native agglomerations. The European popu- lation centers must be separated from those of the indigenous populations for political, economic, sanitary, and aesthetic reasons, as well as for town planning pur- poses. HENRI PROST (chief planner of the French Protectorate under Lyautey) in Royer, cd., L'Urbanismc aux colonies The European city is not the prolongation of the native city. The colonizers have not settled in the midst of the natives. They have surrounded the native city: they have laid siege to it. Every exit from the Kasbah ... opens on enemy territory. FRANTZ FANON, A Dyhlg Colonialism THE French invasion went off without a hitch. After all, there had been enough dress rehearsals elsewhere, and European powers were now quite adept at the sequence: first manufacturing "the in- cident," then sending in troops to "deal with it," thereby creating the confusion and rioting which, after the fact, were always used to justify the need for direct rule. The British had done it in Alexandria as the prelude to their con- quest of Egypt. There, British troop ships were conveniently poised in the harbor when rumors were floated about a "massacre" of Europeans. The British forces stormed ashore to defend their compatriots-and yet no less a personage than the English comp- troller general of the Egyptian customs office in the port was adamant and very explicit about the fact that there was no hostility .1
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133 132 ORIGINS OF APARTHEID toward foreigners in that city until after the troops had landed and begun to attack the populace. 1 The French had already done it in Tunisia, again as the prelude to their conquest of that country. A. M. Broadley, in a two-volume, well-documented expose of this entire process.? tells us how the French engineered their casus belli virtually out of thin air, after several unsuccessful tries. First, they claimed an invasion ofAlgeria
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This note was uploaded on 03/02/2010 for the course PPD 250m taught by Professor Hindery during the Fall '06 term at USC.

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Abu Lughod Rabat - P RINCETON S TUDIES O N T HE N EAR E AST...

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