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Drakakis-Smith Chapter 3

Drakakis-Smith Chapter 3 - 56 An historical perspective...

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56 An historical perspective Discussion questions * Describe the main features of * What were the major contrasts mer cantile colonialism and explain between urb an growth in the how they affected coloni al late coloni al and early sett leme nt. independence periods? * What were the major forces * In what ways did independence tran sf ormin g eco nom ic objec tives affect urba nisatio n in the int o urb an form in the ninete enth develop ing world? century? Illu str ate your answer with reference to a case study. References and further reading C hr istopher, A.J. (1988) The British Empire at its Zenith, Croo m He lm, L ond on . Dixon , C. and Heffern an, M. (1991) Colonialism and Developm ent in the Contemporary World, Man sell, L ond on . Dwyer, D. and Dr akaki s-Smith, D. (eds) (1996) Ethnicity and Development, Wiley, L ond on . Findlay, A.M . (1994) The Arab World, R out ledge, L ond on. Goo dfriend, D.E. (1982) 'Sh ahj ah an abad : tradition and pl ann ed urb an cha nge' , Ekistics, 49: 297 -29 8. King, A. (1976) Colonial Urban Development , R outl edge & Kegan Pau l, Lo ndo n. Kin g, A. (1990) Urbanization. Colonialism and the World Economy, Routledge, London. Lim Heng Kow (1978) The Evolution oft he Urban System in Malaysia, PUM , Kuala Lumpu r. Lowder, S. (1986) Inside Third World Cities, Croom Helm, London . McGee, T.G. (1967) Southeast Asian City, Bell, L ond on . Nath , V. (1993) 'Planning for Delhi', Geo Journal, 29(2): 171- 180. Taylor, P. (1985) Political Geography, Long man , L ond on . o Urban population growth Introduction Migration to the city .,. Explaining urban migration Migrants and migration The impact of migration Government responses to migration Natural population growth and the city Introduction The previous chapters have established that Third World urb ani sation has undergone trem end ous acceleration and change over the last two decades. This chapt er will examine the two main components of this population expansion - migrati on and natur al growth - not only to re-emphasise their relative importance (this is discussed in the broader demographic setting by Parnwell, 1993, and Findlay, 1994, in this series), but also to try to tease out of the discussion some of the forces which have influenced individual fam ilies in their decisions on these matters. In this way we can place some of the general economic and political issues raised in the previous chapt er into the household context. It is imp ort an t, therefore, to look bey ond the demograph ic dimensions of urb an population growth and to consider the ways in which the changing qualitative composition, such as age, ethnic and skill structures, together with access to basic needs, affect urb an sustainability (Go uld, 1998), The two c omponent s of urb an population growth vary in relative importance through space and time, but in general, migrati on is mor e imp ortan t in the early stages of urb an population growth when the prop orti on of national population living in towns and cities is low (Figure 3,I). As the urban proportion rises, so does the contributory role of n atur al growth, altho ugh only up to a certain point. Beyond
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