Study%20questions%20for%20Exam%20#1%20Feb%204%2c%202010

Study%20questions%20for%20Exam%20#1%20Feb%204%2c%202010 -...

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Study questions for Exam #1 – Thursday February 4, 2010 Lecture #1 - Introduction 1. On the average, how many people die each year from natural catastrophes? 2. Which types of catastrophe kill the most people? 3. How many people are estimated to have died in the Banda Aceh earthquake and tsunami last year? 4. Does the increasing cost of damage caused by natural catastrophes indicate that that recently there have been more of them or bigger ones? Lecture #2 – Uncertainties in our understanding of natural processes 1. What are 4 different sources of uncertainty in our interpretation of natural events and our understanding of the potential for future natural catastrophes. 2. How old is the Earth? How old are the Sun and the Moon? 3. How are these ages determined? 4. What process produces heat inside the Earth and drives mantle convection and plate tectonics? 5. Has this heat source been increasing or decreasing since the Earth formed? 6. When did the dinosaurs become extinct? 7. How many other species died off at approximately the same time? 8. When did early hominoids evolve? 9. How long is written recorded history? 10. Approximately how long ago were accurate determinations of the age of the earth made and instrumental records of earthquakes and temperature changes recorded? Lecture #3 – damage from earthquakes 1. What is liquefaction of soil? 2. Why do earthquakes cause avalanches and landslides and cause buildings to collapse? 3. What structural element do buildings need in order not to collapse? 4. How do earthquakes cause fires? 5. Why are fires harder to put out after earthquakes than normally?
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Study%20questions%20for%20Exam%20#1%20Feb%204%2c%202010 -...

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