Lecture%20#3%20notes%20Geol%203950%202010%20CRStern - The...

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Lecture #3 notes, Geology 3950, Spring 2010; CR Stern Damage caused by earthquakes Earthquakes are ruptures along faults which produce seismic waves causing shaking of the ground. This results in landslides, avalanches (see Figure 1), collapse of buildings, liquefaction of soil (see Figure 2), tsunamis, and electric or gas fires that can not be extinguished because water mains are also disrupted, but does not open the ground into the earth’s interior (see figures 3A and 3B) Figure 1. Yungay, Peru, after an avalanche of snow caused by the 1970 earthquake fell from Mt Huascuran in the background. Over 20,000 people in the village were killed. Figure 2. Buildings sliding to the ground due to liquefaction of underlying soil
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Unformatted text preview: The larger the earthquake the longer the shaking goes on for as the rupture propagates from its starting point (the hypocenter) along the rupture zone. Ground shaking in large quakes may last 3-6 minutes. This causes collapse of adobe and brick buildings without internal structural reinforcement, building facades that are not structurally attached, and buildings in which structural walls do not support heavy roves or upper portions during the shaking. It is often said that “Buildings kill people, not earthquakes!” but earthquakes bring out the worst in many building which would otherwise be fine places to live. Figure 3A. This can happen. Figure 2B But this does not happen, except maybe in California....
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Lecture%20#3%20notes%20Geol%203950%202010%20CRStern - The...

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