Work breakdown structure
The probability of differences arising between people engaged in an endeavor rises
exponentially with the number involved, as demonstrated by the following formula:
2"-1, where n is the number of participants and I is the single circumstance in which
all participants agree.
Describe many of the challenges that design professionals face in their work.
List the principal participants in a construction project, and identify their roles.
List and describe the principal categories of construction project.
Describe the typical educational path of architects, engineers, and contractors.
Differentiate the design professional's and constructor's responsibilities.
Graphics are indispensable to anyone trying to communicate a vision or describe an
object to an audience. Ideas commonly originate as pictures, which their creators then
translate into words or words and pictures when they want to share them with others (see
Figures 1.1a and 1.1b).
Indeed, combining pictures with words is the only reliable way to describe some
objects, particularly complex ones such as machines, buildings, and other structures. Because
professionals involved in designing construction projects must communicate particularly
complex ideas, they typically do so through graphics. Therefore builders—whose
responsibilities include interpreting the drawings and other documents that design
professionals create, determining the means and methods of construction, and executing
construction work in a safe and profitable manner—must have a thorough understanding of
the graphics commonly used in construction projects.
Graphics and Builders
In the course of executing their work, contractors use drawings, specifications, and
other documents extensively, and are responsible for producing shop drawings, as-built
drawings, and drawings for temporary structures. They are responsible for effectively
communicating work requirements to their employees and subcontractors. Constructors who
fully understand the project they are planning to build and can effectively communicate the
processes required to build it, orally, graphically, and in other ways, dramatically reduce the
risk in the undertaking. Those who are alert to what the design professional is trying to
achieve in a project and can offer less costly solutions to the design without compromising its