in no small part due to the globalization of the economy, the increased sophistication and
heightened demands of owners, a protracted recession in the 1990s, and the meteoric
development of the personal computer. These developments have forced architects in
particular to evaluate and redefine their practices and to search for different ways of making
themselves useful to their clients. Forming strategic alliances with other design professionals,
builders, and other service providers is one means by which architects are re-establishing their
value to clients. How the profession will define itself in the coming years remains to be seen;
however, it is likely that the traditional services—solving design problems and producing the
contract documents used to construct clients' facilities—will continue to be in demand.
Although there are many formats, architects' design work frequently culminates in a
project manual and the drawings. The project manual commonly contains bidding
requirements, 1 contracting requirements, 2 and specifications. 3
1 The advertisement or invitation to bid, instructions to bidders, bidders' information
including preliminary schedules, geotechnical data, an existing conditions description
(property survey, description of existing buildings, hazardous materials report), bid forms and
supplements (bid form, bid form supplements, representations, and certifications).
2 The agreement, bonds (payment performance, and warranty), and certificates
(payment and insurance certificates), general and supplementary conditions.
3 The written description of products and installation requirements (qualitative
The drawings are, of course, the graphic depiction of the work. Between these two
packages, the builder has, in theory at least, a complete, relevant document set from which to
construct a project. Addenda (clarifications, additions, deletions and modifications to a
project prior to contract signing) are often produced in response to questions generated during