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06 Chptr - 75 6 Site Construction Key Terms Best management...

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75 6 Site Construction Key Terms Best management practices (BMP's) Contour interval Contour line Crib wall Drop inlet Gabions Geocomposite Geogrids Geomembrane Geonet Geotechnical engineer Geotechnical report Geotextile Hachure Index contour Intermediate contour Lifts Thrust block Wattle Key Concepts Site construction is a source of considerable controversy in construction, in large part due to the uncertainty of subsurface conditions (especially soil permeability and groundwater), the complexity of some geologic environments, variability of soils on the same site, and the difficulty of determining the costs of the work. The purpose of subsurface site investigations is to determine with reasonable accuracy what the engineering characteristics of the earth underlying a site are, so that a reliable plan for preparing it for its intended role can be developed. A certain amount of uncertainty is inherent in this work, partly because geotechnical engineers can only forecast soil behavior. Soils and rock are critical construction materials that one is, for the most part, forced to work with. One cannot specify the appropriate soil—as in the case of concrete or structural steel—with fresh, new ingredients of a particular character.
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Objectives Identify the projection types, lines, and symbols commonly used in grading, utility, Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plans, and landscape drawings. Explain the shortcomings of depicting the earth's physical features in two dimensions. Use graphic and mathematical interpolation techniques to find various elevations between two known points. Reproduce drawings of some of the earth's features. Produce and interpret site sections. Manually perform earth quantity takeoffs using grid averaging and the average end- area methods. 76 Site Construction: Preparation and Improvements Until humankind begins to inhabit space as a solution to housing and other pressing needs, its projects will be attached to the earth. Consequently, geotechnical and civil engineers will continue to explore the existing soil conditions at proposed construction sites and make recommendations as to how the earth should be modified to accommodate new projects. It is the geotechnical engineer's responsibility to examine the earth (on land and under bodies of water) and develop the guidelines for preparing soil to perform an identified role, say, to support a building. Removing, remediating, relocating, treating, and compacting the earth, and groundwater issues are all normally addressed in geotechnical reports for construction sites. Logs of soil test borings, their locations, and summaries of findings may appear on the drawings themselves, for example in highway and bridge construction drawings.
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