07 Chptr - 101 7 Foundation Systems Key Terms Angle of...

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Unformatted text preview: 101 7 Foundation Systems Key Terms Angle of repose Benching Buck Caissons Cohesionless soil Cohesive soil Continuous footing Dampproofing Dead loads Differential settlement Floating foundation Foundation Geotextiles Grade beam Hydrostatic pressure Imbedment Keyway Lateral loads Layback Live loads Mat foundation Operations Overturning Parging Pile caps Piles Slab-on-grade foundation Spread or column footing Substructure Superstructure Surcharge Temperature steel Tensioning tendons Tie beam Waterproofing Key Concepts Understanding the goals and responsibilities of the design professional facilitates the interpretation of construction drawings: One can anticipate what the drawings are likely to show. The typical construction contract imposes the responsibility on the constructor to build according to the drawings and specifications provided by the owner (through the NE), so, to varying extents the design dictates the construction process and sequence. Objectives Identify the projection types commonly used to describe foundation systems. List and draw the symbols commonly used in foundation drawings. List the common components of a foundation system. Reproduce drawings of foundation systems. Describe how to construct a simple foundation. Perform a material quantity takeoff of a simple foundation. 102 Purpose of Foundations Fundamentally, the purpose of a foundation is to transfer the various loads imposed on it to the earth. To fulfill its basic requirements, a foundation must be safe against structural failure, settle uniformly, and be economically and technically feasible. What to Expect in the Drawings Foundations for many structures are divisible into two basic categories: deep and shallow foundations. Deep foundations include end-bearing or friction pile foundations, caissons, mat, and floating foundations. Deep foundations are commonly used to support tall buildings, bridges, or structures overlying incompetent soil. Shallow foundations comprise spread or column footings, continuous footings, and slabs-on-grade, and are used on smaller structures and low-rise buildings sitting on competent soil. Pile foundations are commonly constructed with precast, prestressed concrete, wood, or steel piles of varying sizes, lengths, and groupings, or with cast-in-place reinforced concrete caissons. Cast-in-place reinforced concrete pile caps join pile heads together, and transfer the loads from the columns that sit on them to the piles below. The piles are normally designed to share the load equally. Cast-in-place reinforced concrete tie or grade beams frequently tie groups of pile caps or caissons together. Shallow foundations, in contrast, are often composed of cast-in-place reinforced concrete or, in the presence of expansive soil, post-tensioned cast-in-place reinforced concrete slabs-on-grade. Continuous reinforced footings connected to steel-reinforced, grouted concrete masonry units (CMU) are popular as well. Figure 7.1 shows several common concrete masonry units (CMU) are popular as well....
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07 Chptr - 101 7 Foundation Systems Key Terms Angle of...

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