12 Chptr - 265 12 Mechanical S stems Key Terms Angle valve...

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265 12 Mechanical S stems Key Terms Angle valve Bends Butterfly valve Cleanout Compressor Condenser Couplings Duct coil Elbows Evaporator Expansion Loop Flange Galvanic action Gate valve Globe valve Heat exchanger Hub Lift check valve Plenum Reducer Refrigerant Sleeve Swing check valve Tees Trap Union Variable air volume (VAV) box
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Water hammer Wye Key Concepts Exploring mechanical system drawings from two basic viewpoints—source-to- terminus and terminus-to-source-is an effective approach to assimilating the information about the systems. Plumbing supply systems are pressurized systems, whereas drainage systems depend largely on gravity to conduct fluids in one direction or another. Objectives List the fundamental components of an HVAC system. List the fundamental components of a plumbing system. List common graphic symbols in HVAC and plumbing systems. Identify the various specialty contractors who become involved in HVAC and plumbing specialty work, and the parts of the system for which they are responsible. Identify potential sources of conflicts in mechanical system drawings. 266 Purpose of Mechanical Systems The term mechanical systems refers primarily to HVAC (heating, ventilating, and air conditioning) and plumbing systems in building construction. In industrial construction projects, such as wastewater and water treatment plants, mechanical drawings may constitute the bulk of the design professional's work. HVAC systems circulate a mixture of fresh and conditioned air throughout the building, and plumbing systems provide hot and cold potable water, sanitary waste disposal, and system vent piping. Mechanical systems are among the more complicated and costly systems in the typical commercial building, representing close to a fifth of the direct (project-specific) construction costs. For hospital projects, the figure approaches a third or more of the costs. What to Expect in the Drawings In building construction projects, it is common for mechanical drawings to be segregated into mechanical (M sheets) and plumbing (P sheets), even though the same mechanical engineer may design both systems. The conventional drawing set organization calls for the M sheets to precede the P sheets. Whatever the organization of the plans, it helps to develop an understanding of the drawings by exploring the systems independently. HVAC Systems To serve their purpose, HVAC systems must have some means of heating, cooling, conditioning, distributing, filtering, and controlling the speed and temperature of the air in a building. The methods for fulfilling the basic system requirements are numerous and varied, from simple fans to highly controlled environments like clean rooms in silicon chip
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manufacturing. The temperature of the ambient air, relative humidity, air movement, and the mean radiant temperature of a space conspire to create what people sense as temperature in a building. By various means, HVAC systems seek to affect these four comfort factors by
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12 Chptr - 265 12 Mechanical S stems Key Terms Angle valve...

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