Unformatted text preview: Cognition and Language Cognition
Psychology 1107 03/03/10 03/03/10 Introduction Introduction So So how do we take the perceptual information, store it, then use it to solve a problem? problem? Well we know the first two, but, problem Well solving is interesting in its own right solving How do we classify information? How do we communicate it? Cool questions Big questions
03/03/10 03/03/10 Conceptual Thinking Conceptual Concepts simplify the world Allow us to solve real problems Probably organized hierarchically
Chair Objects Furniture Table
03/03/10 03/03/10 Concepts Concepts Prototypes? Exemplars? Maybe Maybe it is characteristics in a conceptual hierarchy conceptual 03/03/10 03/03/10 Problem Solving Problem We use these concepts to solve problems Problem solving is probably done in Problem stages stages Representation Can be good or bad Functional fixedness 03/03/10 03/03/10 Algorithms and Heuristics Algorithms Once Once the problem is represented somehow, we try to solve it using a strategy strategy Algorithms are sets of rules that will Algorithms always come up with a solution always ‘What is Dave’s computer password?’ Might take a while
03/03/10 03/03/10 Heuristics Heuristics Heuristics or rules of thumb are great They often work quickly Computer password example But they can lead us astray Often best if we set up subgoals Means –ends analysis Backward selection
03/03/10 03/03/10 Mental set Mental Which A letter comes next? BCDE?? A E I O ? B C D F G H ? ? M T W T F ? ? O T T F F ? ?
03/03/10 03/03/10 Representativeness Heuristic Representativeness What is the ‘average’ Over used, blinds us to other info Law of small numbers ‘But I know a guy who’ 03/03/10 03/03/10 Is Susan a Librarian, a Teacher, or a Lawyer? Is Linda a Banker? Is Is Linda a feminist Banker? Susan is very shy and withdrawn, invariably Susan helpful, but with little interest in people, or in the world of reality. A meek and tidy soul, she has a need for order meek and structure, and a passion for detail. and Linda is 31 years old, single, outspoken, and Linda very bright. She majored in philosophy and economics. She As a student, she was deeply concerned with As issues of discrimination and social justice, and also participated in anti-war demonstrations.
03/03/10 03/03/10 Availability Heuristic Availability Stuff Stuff that is easy to remember must be the most frequent stuff most Advertising How else could you get people to buy How lottery tickets? lottery 03/03/10 03/03/10 Framing Framing Depends Depends a lot on how the problem is framed the Unemployment vs. Unemployment employment employment Canadian Tire Money Canadian Is a great example Is THEY ARE THEY COUPONS! COUPONS! 03/03/10 03/03/10 Language Language It is symbolic and syntactic
about stuff that isn’t there, and, there are rules rules Talk Talk Phonemes Sounds Morphemes Smallest unit of meaning 03/03/10 03/03/10 Chomsky’s ideas Chomsky’s Surface The The structure vs. deep structure cat chased the mouse." "The mouse was chased by the cat." "The Both Both mean the same thing so the same deep structure deep Surface structure is different Basically semantics vs. syntactics We are the only species that does this
03/03/10 03/03/10 Linguistic development Linguistic Starts with cooing and babbling Phonemes One or two word stage (1 year) Two word stage Telegraphic Sentences Generalization errors 03/03/10 03/03/10 ...
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- Winter '10
- Psychology, Objects Furniture Table, Problem stages stages, Representativeness Heuristic Representativeness, Means –ends analysis, Availability Heuristic Availability