ch11_Motivation - Motivation Motivation Psychology 1107...

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Unformatted text preview: Motivation Motivation Psychology 1107 Introduction Introduction A need or desire that seems to energize need behaviour behaviour The notion of ‘instinct’ is popular Fixed unlearned pattern Suck reflex for example Today Today it is more common to speak of drives and incentives drives Drives and incentives Drives Centerpiece of drive reduction theory Physiological need creates an aroused Physiological psychological state psychological Homeostasis is the key Sort of like a thermometer Maslow Maslow Maslow said we have a Maslow hierarchy of needs hierarchy Physiological Safety Belongingness Esteem Self-actualization So why do people go on So hunger strikes? hunger May not be quite so May hierarchical hierarchical Hunger Hunger Stomach Stomach hungry’ hungry’ Hmm, but people and animals without a Hmm, stomach still feel hungry! stomach You can get specific hungers Sweet Carbs Sodium potassium contractions make you ‘feel Hunger Hunger In In general, your brain monitors your body chemistry chemistry Activity in lateral hypothalamus brings on Activity hunger hunger Ventromedial stop eating Info sent from hypothalamus to other brain Info regions, from hypothalamus to brain areas regions, Sweet and fat foods taste good for a Sweet reason, but, there are also cultural effects reason, Eating disorders Eating Anorexia Bulimia Bulimics Bulimics are more likely to come from families of alcoholics, obese families or depressed families alcoholics, Anorexics are more likely to be high achievers Genetic factors NOT childhood sexual abuse Cultural effects Sexual motivation Sexual Scientific Scientific study of sex was for the most part nonexistent until 1948 part Kinsey and Pommeroy Major findings Premarital sex Masturbation Homosexuality Prostitutes Prostitutes variety The Kinsey report The Somewhat odd interviewing techniques Lousy sample Got in trouble with the volume about Got females (everyone ‘knew’ men thought about sex, but not women!!) about Sex Sex While While Kinsey’s methods were suspect, they were WAY better than the junk in Magazines and the Hite report Magazines Some interesting tidbits from recent (good) Some surveys surveys 91% of people are faithful to their partner 98% have been faithful in the last year! Physiology of sex Physiology And you thought Kinsey was controversial… Masters and Johnson (1966) They um err umm, watched people.. Sexual response cycle Excitement Plateau Orgasm Resolution Refractory Refractory Hormonal effects Hormonal Women Women have somewhat ‘more’ sex drive during ovulation during Correlated with estrogen Men have much less cycling However, However, testosterone leads to arousal leads to testosterone. to Psychology Psychology Unlike Unlike say hunger or thirst there is no ‘need’ per se se External stimuli are important Both Both males and females react most to depictions of an explicit nature an Hmm, does it lead to impossible expectations? Imagined Dreams fantasies stimuli important too Orientation Orientation 3-4% 3-4% of males, about 1 % of females are homosexual exclusively homosexual You do NOT choose to be gay or straight Probably determined in vivo Brain organization Genetic factors Achievement Achievement Ok, so we’ve eaten, had sex, what’s next? Refer back to Maslow People with a high need to achieve tend to People achieve more achieve Have reasonable and reachable goals High achievement motivation often linked High to parental behaviour to Achievement Achievement Intrinsic vs. extrinsic motivation How do we motivate? Cultivate intrinsic motivation Keep ‘em curious Avoid heavy reliance on extrinsic motivation Informing is better than controlling Attend to motives Reasonable challenging goals ...
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