Exam 2 Study Guide - FOOD SCIENCE: FOOD CHEMISTRY STUDY...

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1 F OOD S CIENCE : F OOD C HEMISTRY S TUDY G UIDE Four Branches of Food Science 1. Food Chemistry Chemical composition how much of molecules are present/what is present Structure of molecules Functionality of Food Chemicals (Soluble, non-soluble, what taste do they have, bind water?) can be subjective Reactions of the chemicals during storage, heating, freezing, drying, fermentation 2. Food Microbiology 3. Food Processing 4. Food Analysis Subjective feeding people food and getting their reactions. Effect of the chemical reactions on quality of food Color Flavor Texture Nutritive Value Food Chemicals Include: Lipids/chemicals Carbohydrates Protein Mineral Salts Vitamin Pigments Flavor Compounds Enzymes Others including additives Water Food Additives: chemicals added to serve a function. Antioxidants Chelators EDTA Ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid binds metals/ions slows down oxidation Preservatives Thickeners and Stabilizers Colorants and Flavorants benzyol peroxide bleaches color of flour Anticaking agents Sodium silicoaluminate Non-nutritive sweeteners Structure-Function Relationships Jam soft and spreadable gel different from yogurt and jello. Need 65% sugar and add most of the sugar manually. Spreadability of jam all depends on the structure of pectin. 1. Pectin chemical in fruit which enables jam to set found in cell wall of fruits. Need a lot of water to set. 2. Low Calorie Jam change structure of pectin and add calcium Chemicals Changes to Food Chemicals: lead mostly to losses in quality in alterations to color, flavor, texture and nutritional value.
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2 Non enzymic browning reaction between proteins and sugars without the presence of water. Such as bread in the toaster comes out brown. Enzymic browning apple cut it and leave it exposed in the air. All plant foods contain enzymes and when the plant is damaged through cutting, which leads to exposure to oxygen and will turn brown eventually black. Lipid Oxidation loss of quality such as meat turning rancid Protein Denaturation functionality of 3D structure of the protein and if something perturbs it leaves the protein is unfolded. In natured state are good at binding water. Such as cooking meat and denaturing those proteins. Protein Crosslinking beef jerky, dried beef result of something that becomes chewy/tough and it is an irreversible chemical reaction. Loss of Vitamins Some chemical changes improve quality such as meat tenderizers help make the meat more tender in a reaction with the meat. Water in Foods: water content of foods varies widely depending on the type of food. 1.
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Exam 2 Study Guide - FOOD SCIENCE: FOOD CHEMISTRY STUDY...

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