Lab Paper-Population Genetics and Evolution

Lab Paper-Population Genetics and Evolution - Population...

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Population Genetics and Evolution Introduction: Evolution is the process in which populations, species, or groups of species change. There are two areas of evolutionary study: microevolution and macroevolution. Microevolution describes how a population changes from generation to generation. Macroevolution describes patterns of changes in populations of related species over a long period of time. Lamarck came up with the first evolutionary ideas which included use and disuse, inheritance of acquired characteristics, and natural transformation of species. The idea of use and disuse describes how organisms’ body parts develop with increased use and weaken or disappear with reduced usage. The inheritance of acquired characteristics describes how physical features acquired through the lifetime of parent organisms can be passed onto their offspring. Natural transformation of species describe how each generation of organism acquires “positive” changes from previous generation and eventually evolving into some ultimate, higher order species. About fifty years after came Darwin’s idea of natural selection or “survival of the fittest”, which says that organisms that can adapt to their environment the best survive to produce offspring. Indeed, natural selection is the driving force of evolution because the more adapted an organism is, the more offspring that organism will produce. Allelic frequencies, which describe how often one allele appears within a population, change within a population as a result of natural selection. In 1908, a new theory of evolution was proposed by G. H. Hardy and W. Weinberg at the same time. Their theory suggests that evolution can be described by the change in the allele frequencies in a population. In their theory, each individual within the population is said to possess two alleles for each phenotype, which is the physical trait of an organism that is determined by its genetic makeup. The frequency of one allele, often the dominant, is represented with a “p”, while the other, often the recessive, is represented with a “q”. According to Hardy and Weinberg’s theory, the frequency of the “p” and “q” alleles would add up to one because the percentages of “p” allele and the “q” allele should add up to equal all the alleles for one particular phenotype. Thus, the formula “p + q = 1” is derived to determine the frequency of alleles in a population when
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Lab Paper-Population Genetics and Evolution - Population...

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