chapter04 - 4.1 General Properties of Aqueous Solutions...

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4.1 General Properties of Aqueous Solutions Solution - a homogeneous mixture (recall: any states of matter in constant composition are solutions but in this chapter a solution refers to an aqueous solution) Solute: the component that is dissolved (usually in less amount) r Solvent: the component that does the dissolving (usually in greatest amount) Aqueous Solutions Electrolyte - conducts electricity Nonelectrolyte - does not conduct electricity • How does one distinguish between the two? Electrolyte • Produces ions in solution (dissociates) r Dissociation - ionic compounds break into constituent ions when dissolved in solution • Ex. NaCl (s) Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq) r H 2 O  Nonelectrolyte • Does not ionize in solution (sucrose is a molecular compound) Ionization - formation of ions by molecular compounds when dissolved • Ex. C 12 H 22 O 11(s) C 12 H 22 O 11(aq) H 2 O 
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Strong vs Weak Electrolytes • Strong Electrolyte – 100% dissociation – All water soluble ionic compounds (NaCl) r – All strong acids (HCl) HCl (aq) H + (aq) + Cl - (aq) – All strong bases (NaOH) NaOH (aq) Na + (aq) + OH - (aq) r NaCl ( s ) Na + ( aq ) + Cl - ( aq ) r H 2 O Strong Electrolyte • Dissociates 100% • Bulb glows brightly due to many ions in solution • Strong acids, strong bases and soluble salts Strong Acids Weak Electrolytes • Partially ionized in solution • Exists mostly as the molecular form in solution • Weak acids, weak bases and slightly soluble salts
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Weak Electrolytes Weak acids HC 2 H 3 O 2( aq ) C 2 H 3 O 2 - ( aq ) + H + ( aq ) r Weak bases NH 3 ( aq ) + H 2 O ( l ) NH 4 + ( aq ) + OH - ( aq ) Slightly soluble salts AgCl ( s ) Ag + ( aq ) + Cl - ( aq ) (Note: double arrows indicate a reaction that occurs in both directions - a state of dynamic equilibrium exists) Classify • Classify the following as nonelectrolyte, weak electrolyte or strong electrolyte – NaOH – CH 3 OH – H 2 CO 3 4.2 Precipitation Reactions Precipitation Reactions • Involve ionic compounds • Double replacement (or metathesis reaction) • Precipitation (formation of a solid from two aqueous solutions) occurs when product is insoluble • Refer to solubility rules
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Solubility Rules Classify • Classify the following as soluble or insoluble in an aqueous solution – Ba(NO 3 ) 2 – AgI – Mg(OH) 2 Identify the Precipitate Pb(NO 3 ) 2( aq ) +2NaI ( aq ) 2NaNO 3(?) +PbI 2(?) (Hint: Solubility table) r
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Representing Reactions Molecular: shows all compounds represented by their balanced formulas Total Ionic: shows all strong electrolytes as ions and insoluble substances as compounds Net Ionic: shows only the reacting species in the chemical equation Net Ionic Equations Steps: – Write the balanced molecular equation • You may have to predict products! – Ionize all strong electrolytes in solution
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This note was uploaded on 03/03/2010 for the course CHEM CHEM400 taught by Professor Stewart during the Spring '10 term at American River.

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chapter04 - 4.1 General Properties of Aqueous Solutions...

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