C++_STL_algorithms - CSE 332 C STL algorithms C STL...

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Unformatted text preview: CSE 332: C++ STL algorithms C++ STL Algorithms • Generic algorithms – Apply to a wide range of types • E.g. , sorting integers ( int ) vs. intervals ( pair<int, int> ) – Don’t require inheritance relationships • Types substituted need not have a common base class • Need only to be models of the algorithm’s concept • Implementations in C++ – Rely on templates, interface-based polymorphism – Algorithms are implemented as function templates – Use types that model iterator concepts – Iterators in turn give access to containers CSE 332: C++ STL algorithms Example Revisited: Linear Search • From Austern: “ Generic Programming and the STL ” • Sequential (linear) search: find char c in string s char * strchr (char* s, char c) { while (*s != 0 && *s != c){ ++s; } return *s == c ? s : (char *) 0; } • Problem: not very general – “ Range ” of iteration is always defined up to ‘ \0 ’ character – Only works for a “ zero terminated ” string in C/C++ CSE 332: C++ STL algorithms Review in Detail: Linear Search with Ranges • First generalization (Austern, pp. 11): use a range char * find1 (char* first, char* last, char c){ while ( first != last && * first != c) ++first ; return first; } • Gives an explicit range (calculate its length – how?) • Assumes first is before last (can check – how?) • Note how caller checks for success changed: why? CSE 332: C++ STL algorithms General Requirements for Linear Search • Before we try to improve the algorithm further – Let’s come up with a definition of what it needs to do – This helps to plan what to require and what to leave flexible • Any linear search implementation must offer a way to: – Indicate the sequence over which search will occur – Represent a position within the sequence – Advance to the next element of the sequence – Detect the end of the sequence – Return a value as an indication of success or failure • Goal: meet these requirements flexibly and efficiently CSE 332: C++ STL algorithms Linear Search over Parameterized Types • Second generalization: use templates to parameterize the function argument types template <typename T> T * find2( T * first, T * last, const T & value){ while (first != last && *first != value) ++first; return first; } • How much did the find1 code need to change? • One last problem – What if we want to apply this to a data structure whose ranges can’t be traversed via simple pointers? CSE 332: C++ STL algorithms Linear Search with Generic Iterators • Third generalization: separate iterator type parameter • The STL’s linear search algorithm (Austern pp. 13): template < typename Iterator, typename T> Iterator find ( Iterator first, Iterator last, const T & value) { while (first != last && *first != value) ++first; return first; } • Notice how algorithm depends on the iterators • Notice how refinements made algorithm more abstract – … but still essentially does the same thing – i.e., algorithm structure (and time complexity) is the same CSE 332: C++...
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C++_STL_algorithms - CSE 332 C STL algorithms C STL...

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