PSYC 101 Chapter 7 PowerPoints

PSYC 101 Chapter 7 PowerPoints - Cognitive: Thinking,...

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Cognitive: Thinking, Intelligence, and Language Chapter 7
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Chapter 7 Learning Objective Menu LO 7.1 Mental images and concepts in thinking LO 7.2 Solving problems, make decisions and artificial intelligence LO 7.3 Failure of problem solving and creative thinking LO 7.4 Definition of intelligence LO 7.5 Measuring intelligence and how intelligence tests are constructed LO 7.6 Mental retardation and what causes it LO 7.7 Giftedness and does giftedness guarantee success LO 7.8 Influence of heredity and environment on intelligence LO 7.9 Language and different elements and structure of language LO 7.10 Language and thinking and are animals able to learn language LO 7.11 Ways to improve thinking
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Thinking and Mental Images Thinking (cognition) - mental activity that goes on in the brain when a person is organizing and attempting to understand information and communicating information to others. Mental images - mental representations that stand for objects or events and have a picture-like quality. LO 7.1 Mental images and concepts in thinking Menu
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Concepts Concepts - ideas that represent a class or category of objects, events, or activities. Superordinate concept - the most general form of a type of concept, such as “animal” or “fruit.” Basic level type - an example of a type of concept around which other similar concepts are organized, such as “dog,” “cat,” or “pear.” LO 7.1 Mental images and concepts in thinking Menu
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Concepts Subordinate concept – the most specific category of a concept, such as one’s pet dog or a pear in one’s hand. Formal concepts - concepts that are defined by specific rules or features. Natural concepts - concepts people form as a result of their experiences in the real world. Prototype - an example of a concept that closely matches the defining characteristics of a concept. LO 7.1 Mental images and concepts in thinking Menu A platypus is a “fuzzy” natural concept
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Menu LO 7.1 Mental images and concepts in thinking
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Problem-Solving Problem solving - process of cognition that occurs when a goal must be reached by thinking and behaving in certain ways. Trial and error (mechanical solution) – problem-solving method in which one possible solution after another is tried until a successful one is found. Algorithms - very specific, step-by- step procedures for solving certain types of problems. LO 7.2 Solving problems, making decisions and artificial intelligence Menu
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Heuristic - an educated guess based on prior experiences that helps narrow down the possible solutions for a problem. Also known as a “rule of thumb.” Means–end analysis - heuristic in which the difference between the starting situation and the goal is determined and then steps are taken to reduce that difference. Insight
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This note was uploaded on 03/03/2010 for the course PSYCH 101 taught by Professor Nahad during the Spring '07 term at Ivy Tech Community College.

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PSYC 101 Chapter 7 PowerPoints - Cognitive: Thinking,...

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