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Chapter 14 Foundations of Behavior

Chapter 14 Foundations of Behavior - Chapter 14 Foundations...

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Chapter 14 Foundations of Behavior ANNOTATED OUTLINE 1. INTRODUCTION This chapter examines numerous factors that influence employee behavior and their implications for managers. 2. WHY LOOK AT INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR? Behavior is how people act. Organizational behavior is the study of how people act at work. The visible organization can be described as the tip of an iceberg; many of the important issues involved in understanding OB are not easily observed. (See Exhibit 14-1 and PowerPoint slide 14-7. ) A.Focus of Organizational Behavior Organizational behavior focuses on two major areas: 1. Individual behavior 2. Group behavior B. The goals of OB are to explain, predict, and influence behavior. 3. ATTITUDES Attitudes are defined as evaluative statements—favorable or unfavorable— concerning objects, people, or events. A.Attitudes have three components: cognitive, affective, and behavioral. 1. The cognitive component of an attitude is the part of an attitude that is made up of the beliefs, opinions, knowledge, or information held by a person. 2. The affective component of an attitude is that part of an attitude that is the emotional, or feeling, part. 3. The behavioral component of an attitude is that part of an attitude that refers to an intention to behave in a certain way. B. Managers are particularly interested in the job-related attitudes of employees. Job- related attitudes include job satisfaction, job involvement, organizational commitment, and organizational citizenship behavior. 1. Job satisfaction is an employee’s general attitude toward his or her job. 2. Job involvement is the degree to which an employee identifies with his or her job, actively participates in it, and considers his or her job performance important to his or her self-worth. 3. Organizational commitment is an employee’s orientation toward the organization in terms of his or her loyalty to, identification with, and
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involvement in the organization. C. Attitudes and Consistency Research has generally shown that people seek consistency among their attitudes and between their attitudes and their behavior. D.Does the consistency principle mean that we can predict an individual’s behavior if we know his or her attitude on a subject? The answer depends. 1. Cognitive dissonance refers to any inconsistency that an individual might perceive between attitudes or between behavior and attitudes. 2. This dissonance or inconsistency leads to an uncomfortable state for the individual, who will try to reduce the inconsistency. 3. The desire to reduce dissonance is determined by (a) the importance of the factors creating the dissonance, (b) the degree of influence the individual believes he/she has over those factors, and (c) the rewards that may be involved in dissonance.
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