Chapter 16 Motivating Employees
Managers need to understand and apply motivational concepts and practices to
encourage their employees to devote maximum effort to their jobs. This chapter
explores essential information on the concepts of motivation.
WHAT IS MOTIVATION?
is the process by which a person’s efforts are energized, directed, and
sustained towards attaining a goal.
is a measure of intensity or drive. High levels of effort are unlikely to lead to
favorable job performance unless the effort is channeled in a direction that
benefits the organization.
is an internal state that makes certain outcomes appear attractive. An
unsatisfied need creates tension that stimulates drives within an individual.
These drives generate a search behavior to find particular goals that, if
attained, will satisfy the need and reduce the tension.
EARLY THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
Three early theories of motivation provide the best-known explanations for employee
motivation, even though their validity has been questioned.
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory
was developed by psychologist Abraham
Maslow. This theory states that there is a hierarchy of five human needs:
physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization. (See
PowerPoint slide 16-8
As each need is substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant.
The text describes these five needs as
(basic food, drink,
water, shelter, and sexual needs);
(security and protection
from physical and emotional harm);
acceptance, and friendship);
(internal factors such as self-
respect, autonomy, and achievement, and external factors such as
status, recognition, and attention); and
drive to become what he/she is capable of becoming).
Maslow separated the needs into lower-level needs (including the
physiological and safety needs) and higher-level needs (including
social, esteem, and self-actualization).
McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y
were developed by Douglas McGregor and