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Chapter 16 Motivating Employees

Chapter 16 Motivating Employees - Chapter 16 Motivating...

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Chapter 16 Motivating Employees ANNOTATED OUTLINE 1. INTRODUCTION Managers need to understand and apply motivational concepts and practices to encourage their employees to devote maximum effort to their jobs. This chapter explores essential information on the concepts of motivation. 2. WHAT IS MOTIVATION? Motivation is the process by which a person’s efforts are energized, directed, and sustained towards attaining a goal. A. Effort is a measure of intensity or drive. High levels of effort are unlikely to lead to favorable job performance unless the effort is channeled in a direction that benefits the organization. B. A need is an internal state that makes certain outcomes appear attractive. An unsatisfied need creates tension that stimulates drives within an individual. These drives generate a search behavior to find particular goals that, if attained, will satisfy the need and reduce the tension. 3. EARLY THEORIES OF MOTIVATION Three early theories of motivation provide the best-known explanations for employee motivation, even though their validity has been questioned. A. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory was developed by psychologist Abraham Maslow. This theory states that there is a hierarchy of five human needs: physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization. (See Exhibit 16- 1 and PowerPoint slide 16-8 .) 1. As each need is substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant. 2. The text describes these five needs as physiological (basic food, drink, water, shelter, and sexual needs); safety (security and protection from physical and emotional harm); social (affection, belongingness, acceptance, and friendship); esteem (internal factors such as self- respect, autonomy, and achievement, and external factors such as status, recognition, and attention); and self-actualization (a person’s drive to become what he/she is capable of becoming). 3. Maslow separated the needs into lower-level needs (including the physiological and safety needs) and higher-level needs (including social, esteem, and self-actualization). B. McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y were developed by Douglas McGregor and
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describe two distinct views of human nature. 1. Theory X is the assumption that employees dislike work, are lazy, avoid responsibility, and must be coerced to perform. 2. Theory Y is the assumption that employees are creative, enjoy work, seek responsibility, and can exercise self-direction. 3. Theory X assumes that Maslow’s lower-order needs dominate individuals, while Theory Y assumes that higher-order needs are dominant. 4. No empirical evidence exists to confirm that either set of assumptions is valid or that altering behavior based on Theory Y assumptions will increase employees’ motivation.
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Chapter 16 Motivating Employees - Chapter 16 Motivating...

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