bio214b - Biology 214/414 2009 Packet #1 Suggested...

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Biology 214/414 2009 Packet #1 Suggested problems: Chapter 1: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11 Chapter 2: 2, 4, 5, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 15, 16, 18, 24 I. What is the difference between a rock and a plant? A. Living things are able to arrange atoms from simple to complex combinations, that is, they can make entropy go backwards. B. Living things can transmit traits to new cells and organisms (each trait is ultimately the ability to mediate a particular rearrangement of atoms). i. “Genetics ” deals with transmission of traits ii. “Genetic Technology ” deals with attempts to manipulate this transmission for useful purposes: 1. basic research 2. medicine (diagnosis, treatment) 3. industry 4. agriculture 5. forensics 6. clean-up and analysis of pollutants 7. includes “recombinant DNA ” and “genetic engineering ” as well as conventional techniques II. Genetic technology A. Its understanding requires understanding genetics (genetics is important and interesting in its own right). i. at molecular and cellular levels: DNA and its expression; how “genetic material ” or “genes ” (ie, DNA) are transmitted from generation to generation; how expression of gene(s) produces identifiable trait(s) (“phenotypes ”) ii. at organism and population levels: diversity and evolution of life on Earth iii. We must understand these things (particularly at the molecular and cellular levels) before genetic technology makes sense; this will take much of this course, but the hope is that it will allow appreciation and analysis of
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genetic technology and a better understanding of how Mother Nature works after this course is over . III. A short history of genetics and genetic technology A. Genetic technology is probably about 10,000 years old. i. It started with selective breeding of cereals and other food crops: the largest and most vigorous and productive individuals were selected as parents for the next generation; but there was no understanding of the basis for inheritance. B. Early ideas about the basis for inheritance (before the 1860’s) included: i. “Smooth blending ” of traits of the parents in the offspring ii. “Lamarckism ”, which was a theory of evolution in which the environment causes inherited changes in organisms C. Later (late 1800’s-early 1900’s)—concept of a “gene” as (1) a physical entity, (2) occurring in discreet units, (3) each one being responsible for a trait, and (4) genes carried on subcellular bodies called “chromosomes” ( Figures 1-1 through 1-6 ) D. Early to mid 1900’s: i. Genes function by directing synthesis of “macromolecules ” (proteins, RNAs) required for the steps in cell maintenance, growth, reproduction, etc. ( Figures 1-10 through 1-13
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This note was uploaded on 03/03/2010 for the course BIOL 214 taught by Professor Stark during the Fall '06 term at Illinois Tech.

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bio214b - Biology 214/414 2009 Packet #1 Suggested...

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