bio214h - Biology 214/414 2009 Packet #7 Suggested...

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Biology 214/414 2009 P a c k e t # 7 Suggested problems: Chapter 10: 4, 9, 10, 11, 14, 17, 18, 19, 20, 23, 26, 28 Everything you ever wanted to know about DNA! I. The understanding of Mendelian genetics and the relationship between genes and chromosomes which existed in the early part of the 20 th century occurred completely without any understanding of the actual molecular structure of genes. a. It was clear though that whatever the chemical structure of the genes was, it would have to fulfill three requirements: i. The ability to store, replicate, and transmit information ii. Allow for the correct expression of this information into products useful/needed for cell structure and function iii. Be stable while still allowing for change to drive evolution II. We know now of course that except for a few viruses the genetic material is DNA (“deoxyribonucleic acid ”). a. This was shown first in the 1940’s in experiments which were based on studies done in 1928. i. In 1928 Griffith discovered the phenomenon of transformation in bacteria (we have already discussed this phenomenon). ( Figure 10-3; Table 10.1 ) 1. Griffith worked with Streptococcus pneumoniae (also known as “pneumococcus ”). 2. Pneumococcus has two “capsule ” types (“smooth” or “S”, which are virulent cells that cause pneumonia and “rough” or “R”, which are avirulent cells); mice were injected with various combinations of the two types. 3. heat-killed S all the mice lived 4. heat-killed S + live R many mice were killed and live S cells were found in the dead mice; R cells had been “transformed ” into S cells by some component of the dead S cells.
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ii. In 1944 Avery, McCarty and MacLeod reported a continuation of Griffith’s work in which purified components of the S cells were added to live R cells to
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bio214h - Biology 214/414 2009 Packet #7 Suggested...

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