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Study Guide Test 1 - 1 Was Europe a good place to live in...

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1. Was Europe a good place to live in 1492? Explain. No: There were no true nations in Europe at the beginning of the 15th century, only small city-states and feudal holdings. A third of its population had died in the Plague. The continent had been ravaged by the Hundred Years War (1337-1453). Islam, in the form of the Ottoman Turks, was invading from the East. Constantinople had fallen to the Turks. England had emerged from a devastating civil war in 1485 Europe was a cesspool in 1492, probably the most unsanitary place on the Earth. Streets and rivers were giant toilets. Bathing was uncommon. Medicine was actually dangerous. Mortality was high, especially among children. 2. Name three areas in which European technology was “advanced” in 1492. Farming. Europeans had draft animals, wheels, and iron plows. Metalworking. Europeans could produce metal tools that made other kinds of construction possible, and, by this time, guns. Ocean going ships. They were trading in the Baltic, the Mediterranean, and along the Atlantic coasts of Europe and Africa. They had navigational tools and had begun to master the Atlantic Ocean currents. 3. Which European country was the first to begin exploring along the Atlantic coast of Africa? Portugal 4. What city in sub-Sahara Africa was an important center of trade and Islamic culture in the 14th and 15th centuries? Timbuktu 5. What European country was the first to dominate trade in the South Atlantic? Portugal 6. What was Columbus’ main purpose in wanting to sail west to the Indies? Columbus was obsessed with the idea of finding a new route to the Far East, which would provide him with enough wealth to pay for the liberation of the Holy Land from Islamic rule. 7. What European country was the first to dominate the slave trade in the Atlantic? Portugal 8. The first migrants to America came about how many years ago? Between 25,000 and 70,000 years ago 9. The land bridge over which they came was called what?
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Beringia/Bering Strait 10. List some technologies that the Native Americans did not have that the Europeans had. 11. In what ways was the Indian civilization as advanced as the European civilization? Built huge pyramids 12. What was the Columbian Exchange? The exchange of things/products between the old and new world 13. What was the most important item the Europeans received from the Americas? Corn and potatoe 14. What European import was most devastating to the Indians? Pigs brought diseases: small pox, measles, cholera, influenza, malaria, scarlet fever, and bubonic plague 15. What was used to justify the other European nations’ aggression toward Spain? 16. List three points of Spain’s policy toward the New World. First and foremost their official policy was to Christianize the Indians.
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