ch21 - Ch 21. Nonmetals, Metalloids, Metals, and Metal...

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Unformatted text preview: Ch 21. Nonmetals, Metalloids, Metals, and Metal Complexes Br ady & Senese, 5th Ed. 13.1. Crystalline solids have an ordered internal structure 2 Index 21.1Nonmetals and metalloids are found as free elements and in compo 21.2Nonmetallic elements in their free states have structures of varying 21.3Metals are prepared from compounds by reduction 21.4Metallurgy is the science and technology of metals 21.5Complex ions are formed by many metals 21.6The nomenclature of metal complexes follows an extension of the 21.7Coordination number and structure are often related 21.8Isomers of coordination complexes are compounds with the same f 21.9Bonding in transition metal complexes involves d orbitals 21.10 Metal ions serve critical functions in biological systems 21.1 Nonmetals and metalloids are found as free elements and in compounds 3 Figure 21.1 Metals 21.1 Nonmetals and metalloids are found as free elements and in compounds 4 Preparation of Nonmetals Occur both as free elements or in molecular forms Except for He and Rn, noble gases are obtained from air He is a radioactive decay product found in gaseous deposits beneath the earth Rn is radioactive and a decay product, only found in minute quantities in nature Noble gases are elemental from air 21.1 Nonmetals and metalloids are found as free elements and in compounds 5 Recovery May be recovered from the anion form using: a single replacement type reaction 2NaCl + F 2 2NaF + Cl 2 Activity: F 2 >Cl 2 >Br 2 >I 2 reaction with an oxidizing agent I or Br, Cl, X where O 2H Mn X 4H MnO 2X 2 2 2 2 = + + + + + +- 21.1 Nonmetals and metalloids are found as free elements and in compounds 6 Recovery (con.) May be recovered from a compound in which it has a (+) oxidation state by reaction with a reducing agent Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2(s) + 3 SiO 2(s) + 5C (s) 3CaSiO 3(l) + 5CO (g) + 2P (g) May be recovered using electrolysis of molten compounds 2NaCl 2Na + Cl 2 21.1 Nonmetals and metalloids are found as free elements and in compounds 7 Your Turn! Mg 3 N 2( s ) + Cl 2(g) A. MgCl 2(s) B. NCl (g) C. NR 21.1 Nonmetals and metalloids are found as free elements and in compounds 8 Metalloids In most of their compounds, are combined with nonmetals, either in a molecular structure or in an oxoanion Have lower electronegativities than nonmetals, so the metalloids exists in a positive oxidation state 21.1 Nonmetals and metalloids are found as free elements and in compounds 9 Preparation of Metalloids Obtained by chemical reduction, accomplished with either hydrogen or carbon as the reducing agent O(g) 2H Ge(s) (g) 2H (s) GeO (g) CO Si(s) C(s) (s) SiO 6HCl(g) 2B(s) (g) 3H (g) 2BCl 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 + + + + + + 21.1 Nonmetals and metalloids are found as free elements and in compounds 10 Your Turn!...
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ch21 - Ch 21. Nonmetals, Metalloids, Metals, and Metal...

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