E283C5 - EEEB344 Electromechanical Devices Chapter 5...

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EEEB344 Electromechanical Devices Chapter 5 CHAPTER 5 – SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR Summary: 1. Synchronous Generator Construction 2. The Speed of Rotation of a Synchronous Generator 3. The Internal Generated Voltage of a Synchronous Generator 4. The Equivalent Circuit of a Synchronous Generator 5. The Phasor Diagram of a Synchronous Generator 6. Power and Torque in Synchronous Generator 7. Measuring Synchronous Generator Model Parameters 8. The Synchronous Generator Operating Alone - The Effect of Load Changes on a Synchronous Generator Operating Alone. 9. Parallel operation of AC Generators - The conditions required for paralleling - The general procedure for paralleling generators - Frequency-power and Voltage-Reactive Power characteristics of a synchronous generator. - Operation of generators in parallel with large power systems - Operation of generators in parallel with other generators of the same size. 10. Synchronous Generator Ratings - The Voltage, Speed and Frequency Ratings - Apparent Power and Power-Factor Ratings - Synchronous Generator Capability Curve 1
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EEEB344 Electromechanical Devices Chapter 5 1. Synchronous Generator Construction A DC current is applied to the rotor winding, which then produces a rotor magnetic field. The rotor is then turned by a prime mover (eg. Steam, water etc.) producing a rotating magnetic field. This rotating magnetic field induces a 3-phase set of voltages within the stator windings of the generator. “Field windings” applies to the windings that produce the main magnetic field in a machine, and “armature windings” applies to the windings where the main voltage is induced. For synchronous machines, the field windings are on the rotor, so the terms “rotor windings” and “field windings” are used interchangeably. Generally a synchronous generator must have at least 2 components: a) Rotor Windings or Field Windings a. Salient Pole b. Non Salient Pole b) Stator Windings or Armature Windings The rotor of a synchronous generator is a large electromagnet and the magnetic poles on the rotor can either be salient or non salient construction. Non-salient pole rotors are normally used for rotors with 2 or 4 poles rotor, while salient pole rotors are used for 4 or more poles rotor. A dc current must be supplied to the field circuit on the rotor. Since the rotor is rotating, a special arrangement is required to get the dc power to its field windings. The common ways are: a) supply the dc power from an external dc source to the rotor by means of slip rings and brushes. b) Supply the dc power from a special dc power source mounted directly on the shaft of the synchronous generator. 2 Non-salient rotor for a synchronous machine Salient rotor
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EEEB344 Electromechanical Devices Chapter 5 Slip rings are metal rings completely encircling the shaft of a machine but insulated from it. One end of the dc rotor winding is tied to each of the 2 slip rings on the shaft of the synchronous machine, and a stationary brush rides on each slip ring. A “brush” is a block of graphitelike carbon compound that conducts electricity freely but has very low
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E283C5 - EEEB344 Electromechanical Devices Chapter 5...

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