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9291_c013 - 13 Power System Dynamic Modeling 13.1 13.2 13.3...

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13 Power System Dynamic Modeling William W. Price GE Energy 13.1 Modeling Requirements .................................................. 13 -1 13.2 Generator Modeling ........................................................ 13 -2 Rotor Mechanical Model . Generator Electrical Model . Saturation Modeling 13.3 Excitation System Modeling ........................................... 13 -4 13.4 Prime Mover Modeling ................................................... 13 -6 Wind Turbine-Generator Systems 13.5 Load Modeling ................................................................. 13 -8 13.6 Transmission Device Models ........................................ 13 -10 13.7 Dynamic Equivalents .................................................... 13 -10 13.1 Modeling Requirements Analysis of power system dynamic performance requires the use of computational models representing the nonlinear differential–algebraic equations of the various system components. While scale models or analog models are sometimes used for this purpose, most power system dynamic analysis is performed with digital computers using specialized programs. These programs include a variety of models for generators, excitation systems, governor-turbine systems, loads, and other components. The user is therefore concerned with selecting the appropriate models for the problem at hand and determining the data to represent the specific equipment on his or her system. The focus of this article is on these concerns. The choice of appropriate models depends heavily on the timescale of the problem being analyzed. Figure 13.1 shows the principal power system dynamic performance areas displayed on a logarithmic timescale ranging from microseconds to days. The lower end of the band for a particular item indicates the smallest time constants that need to be included for adequate modeling. The upper end indicates the approximate length of time that must be analyzed. It is possible to build a power system simulation model that includes all dynamic effects from very fast network inductance = capacitance effects to very slow economic dispatch of generation. However, for efficiency and ease of analysis, normal engineering practice dictates that only models incorporating the dynamic effects relevant to the particular perform- ance area of concern be used. This section focuses on the modeling required for analysis of power system stability, including transient stability, oscillatory stability, voltage stability, and frequency stability. For this purpose, it is normally adequate to represent the electrical network elements (transmission lines and transformers) by algebraic equations. The effect of frequency changes on the inductive and capacitive reactances is sometimes included, but is usually neglected, since for most stability analysis, the frequency changes are small. The modeling of the various system components for stability analysis purposes is discussed in ß 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
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the remainder of this section. For greater detail, the reader is referred to Kundur (1994) and the other references cited below. 13.2 Generator Modeling The model of a generator consists of two parts: the acceleration equations of the turbine-generator rotor and the generator electrical flux dynamics.
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