5715ch7 - 7 Induction Starter/ Alternators (ISAs) for...

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7 -1 7 Induction Starter/ Alternators (ISAs) for Electric Hybrid Vehicles (EHVs) 7.1 EHV Configuration. ........................................................... 7 -1 7.2 Essential Specifications . ..................................................... 7 -4 Peak Torque (Motoring) and Power (Generating) Battery Parameters and Characteristics 7.3 Topology Aspects of Induction Starter/Alternator (ISA). ................................................................................... 7- 9 7.4 ISA Space-Phasor Model and Characteristics. ............... 7 -11 7.5 Vector Control of ISA. ..................................................... 7 -20 7.6 DTFC of ISA. .................................................................... 7- 21 7.7 ISA Design Issues for Variable Speed . ............................ 7- 24 Power and Voltage Derating Increasing Efficiency Increasing the Breakdown Torque Additional Measures for Wide Constant Power Range 7.8 Summary. .......................................................................... 7- 31 References. ................................................................................. 7- 33 7.1 EHV Configuration In this book, EHVs stands for electric hybrid vehicles. EHV constitutes an aggressive novel technology aimed at improving comfort, gas mileage, and environmental performance of road vehicles [1,2]. The degree of “electrification” in a vehicle may be defined by the electric fraction, % E [3]: (7.1) For a mild hybrid car with battery soft-replenishing % E is lower than 40% in town driving. It may reach up to 70% when the battery is replenished from the power grid daily. % E becomes 100% for fully electric vehicles, with fuel cells or batteries or inertial batteries (flywheels) as the energy storage system. The larger the electric fraction % E , the lower the internal combustion engine (ICE) rating (it is zero for a fully electric vehicle). % E = + Peak electric power Peak electric power P PP Peak ICE power (el) (el) = + () ICE © 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
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7 -2 Variable Speed Generators FIGURE 7.1 Basic vehicle electrification configurations: (a) series hybrids, (b) and (c) parallel hybrids, and (d) electric. ICE Electric generator 180–600 Vdc 14 Vdc bus DC-DC converter (a) (b) + + Electric drives for propulsion ICE Electric clutch Starter- alternator 4 Quadrant PWM converter Air cond. + Auxiliaries DC-DC converter 14 Vdc bus 42 Vdc bus 12 V loads High power loads Belt (or gear, or direct coupling) PWM converter Battery Clutch 2 Clutch 1 Clutch 3 Flyweel Starter-alternator (c) © 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
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Induction Starter/Alternators (ISAs) for Electric Hybrid Vehicles (EHVs) 7 -3 The electrification of vehicles is approached through a plethora of system configurations that may be In series hybrids (Figure 7.1a), the full-size ICE drives an electric generator on the vehicle that then produces electric energy for all tasks, from the electric drives to auxiliaries and battery recharging. In parallel hybrids (Figure 7.1b and Figure 7.1c), the downsized ICE is started by the starter/alternator that then assists in propulsion at low to medium speeds and, respectively, works as a generator to feed the electrical loads and recharge the battery. In fully electric vehicles (Figure 7.1d), a large high-voltage battery, recharged from the power grid once every day, supplies all electric drives used for vehicle propulsion. It also contains a 42 V dc battery that supplies the auxiliaries. This latter battery is recharged from the main battery through a dedicated direct current (DC)–DC converter.
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5715ch7 - 7 Induction Starter/ Alternators (ISAs) for...

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