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© 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
8
1
8
PermanentMagnet
Assisted Reluctance
Synchronous Starter/
Alternators for Electric
Hybrid Vehicles
8.1
Introduction .
......................................................................
8
1
8.2
Topologies of PMRSM .
....................................................
8
3
8.3
Finite Element Analysis.
.....................................................
8
5
Flux Distribution
•
The
d
–
q
Inductances
•
The Cogging
Torque
•
Core Losses Computation by FEM
8.4
The
d
–
q
Model of PMRSM .
.........................................
8
12
8.5
SteadyState Operation at No Load and Symmetric
ShortCircuit.
...................................................................
8
19
Generator NoLoad
•
Symmetrical ShortCircuit
8.6
Design Aspects for Wide Speed Range Constant
Power Operation .
............................................................
8
21
8.7
Power Electronics for PMRSM for Automotive
Applications.
....................................................................
8
27
8.8
Control of PMRSM for EHV.
.......................................
8
30
8.9
State Observers without Signal Injection for Motion
Sensorless Control.
..........................................................
8
32
8.10
Signal Injection Rotor Position Observers.
...................
8
34
8.11
Initial and Low Speed Rotor Position Tracking.
...........
8
34
8.12
Summary.
.........................................................................
8
39
References.
..................................................................................
8
41
8.1
Introduction
The permanentmagnetassisted reluctance synchronous machine (PMRSM), also called the interior
permanent magnet (IPM) synchronous machine, with high magnetic saliency was proven to be compet
automobile applications where a large constant power speed range
w
max
/
w
b
>
3 to 4 is required.
The cost comparisons show the PMRSM starter alternator system, including power electronics control,
to be notably less expensive than the surface PM synchronous machine or switched reluctance machine
system at the same output. It is comparable with the cost of the induction machine system. In terms of
itive, pricewise (
Figure 8.1
) [1], and superior in terms of total losses (
Figure 8.2
) [2] for starter/alternator
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8
2
Variable Speed Generators
total machine plus power electronics losses, the PMRSM is slightly superior even to the surface PM
synchronous machine (Figure 8.2), and notably superior to the induction machine system, all designed
for the same machine volume, at 30 kW [2].
It was also demonstrated that PMRSM [2] is capable of a notably larger constant power speed range
than the surface PM synchronous, or the induction, or the switched reluctance machine of the same volume.
In essence, both the lower cost and the wide constant power speed range are explained by the combined
action of PMs and the high magnetic saliency torque to reduce the peak current for peak torque at low
speed and reduce ﬂux/torque at high speeds.
Starter/alternators for automobile applications are forced to operate at a constant power speed range
w
max
/
w
b
>
3 to 4 and up to 12 to 1. The higher the interval (without notably oversizing the machine or
the converter) constant power speed range, the better.
This is how the PMRSM becomes a tough competitor for electric hybrid vehicles (EHVs). The larger
w
max
/
w
b
is, the smaller the PM contribution to torque.
In what follows, we will treat the main topological aspects, ﬁeld distribution, and parameters by ﬁnite
element method (FEM), lumped parameter modeling of saturated PMRSM, core loss models, design
issues for wide
w
max
/
w
b
ratios, and system models for dynamics and vector ﬂuxoriented control (FOC)
and direct torque and ﬂux control (DTFC) with and without position control feedback.
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