Europeans Colonize North America (1600 – 1640)
*English Interest in Colonization*
- By the sixteenth century, many countries, including Spain, France and the Netherlands, had established
colonies in the New World. Until the foundation of Jamestown, however, the English didn’t have any
successful permanent colonies in North America.
- Prior to Jamestown,
Sir Walter Raleigh
of the Sea Dogs formed a joint stock company and received a
charter to found a colony on
in 1584. It failed, and he tried again in 1585 and 1587. Both
were failures, and the fate of the 1587 colony remains a mystery (all colonists disappeared).
- Anyhow, several factors encouraged the English to try again with Jamestown even after their earlier
failures, and motivated people to join the expeditions. These reasons include…
– England had experienced a dramatic population boom, resulting in social and
economic upheaval (inflation, falling wages, peasants losing their land b/c of the enclosure
movement, many homeless people, rapidly growing cities).
– The English government was concerned about losing ground in the competition
with the Spanish for overall power and with the Dutch for trading. Since they had colonies, it was
only natural that England would want them as well.
– This applies more to the prospective colonists than to the government. Anyhow, after
Henry VIII split from the church in 1533, he established the Anglican Church, which was
subsequently taken over by Queen Elizabeth, who swung it more towards the Protestant side. This
led to the formation of many English Calvinist [Puritan] groups, who felt that reform should go
further. But under the Stuarts [the absolutists], the church went back towards Catholicism w/o the
Pope, and many of the Puritans were forced to flee in the 1620s to avoid persecution.
*The Founding of Virginia*
- In 1606 the Virginia Company was founded by a group of merchants and gentry who felt they could reap
great profits from colonizing America [it could allow them to find precious metals and new trade routes]. The
Virginia Company was a
venture [it was funded by contributions from many small investors].
- Although joint-stock companies had worked well to finance voyages, which quickly resulted in $, they
wouldn’t work as well for colonies b/c colonies required enormous amounts of funding and usually failed, or
at least took a long time, to return profits. Consequently, colonies funded by these companies were always
short of capital b/c nobody wanted to risk much $.
- Anyhow, James I decided to go ahead and charter the company in 1606, which resulted in
being founded in Virginia [after a failure to start a colony in Maine] in
by 104 Englishmen.
*Jamestown’s Struggle for Survival*