lecture 13- - Lecture 13: Reactions and Enzymes 9/26/08...

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Lecture 13: Reactions and Enzymes 9/26/08 -autotrophs: producers -heterotrophs: consumers -Energy: capacity to do useful work -6 Uses of energy by organisms: muscular work, heat, electrical work, bioluminescent work (fireflies), growth, concentrating compounds Where We’re Going 1) Thermodynamic Laws 2) Gibbs Free Energy 3) Activation Energy 4) Enzymes as Catalysts 5) Modulation of Enzymes Enzyme Transformations 1 st Law of thermodynamics : conservation of energy the total amount of energy in the universe remains the same. Energy can neither be created nor destroyed…it is transformed 2 nd Law of thermodynamics: Entropy happens the entropy of a system not at eequilibrium will tend to increase over time. Every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe. *thus, even if a given system becomes more ordered, the universe becomes more disordered -disorder in natural rock - ordered structure in biological organisms requires energy to sustain order Entropy of Chemical Reactions -gibbs free energy (G, joule) G= enthalpy – (temperature)(entropy ) H=enthalpy: total energy of a system, a measure of the type and quantity of the chemical structure (Joule) -S = entropy: measure of the disorder of the system (joule/K) -T=temperature (k) systems with high free energy are less stable and have greater work capacity spontaneously changes: free energy decreases, becomes more stable, releases free energy for useful work systems with lower free energy, more stability, less work capacity * Closed System: reactions proceed for while
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This note was uploaded on 03/03/2010 for the course BIOG 1101 taught by Professor N/a during the Fall '10 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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lecture 13- - Lecture 13: Reactions and Enzymes 9/26/08...

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