psych prelim 2 review - Jamie Cohen-Prelim II Review Module...

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Jamie Cohen--Prelim II Review Module 6: Behavior Genetics and Evolutionary Psychology -environment: every non-genetic influence -behavior genetics: the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior -chromosomes: threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes -DNA: complex molecule containing genetic information that makes up the chromosomes -genes: biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein -genome: complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organism’s chromosomes -identical twins: twins who develop from a single fertilized eggs that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms -fraternal twins: twins who develop from separate fertilized eggs. They are genetically no closer than brothers and sisters, but they share a fetal environment -adoptees’ traits are more similar to biological parents than to adoptive -temperament: a person’s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity -heritability: the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied (can increase due to genes if differences due to environment would decrease) -interaction: when the effect of one factor (ie: environment) depends on another factor (ie: heredity) -molecular genetics: studies molecular structure and function of genes -evolutionary psychology: study of evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection -natural selection: principle that among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations -mutation: a random error in gene replication that leads to change -gender: biologically and socially influenced characteristics by which people define male and female Module 7: Environmental Influences on Behavior -parents should be given less credit for kids who turn out great and blamed less for kids who do not -culture: the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted form one generation to the next -norm: an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior; proper behavior -personal space: buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies -individualism: giving priority to one’s own goals over group goals and defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications -collectivism: giving priority to the goals of one’s group (often one’s extended family or work group) and defining one’s identity accordingly…may act shy in new groups and are more easily embarrassed than individualist counterparts -self; i: independent…c: interdependent –life task; i: uniqueness…c: fit in---what matters: i: me, c: us--- coping: i: change reality…c: accommodate to reality—morality i: defined by individuals …c: defined by
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This note was uploaded on 03/03/2010 for the course PSYCH 1101 at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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psych prelim 2 review - Jamie Cohen-Prelim II Review Module...

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