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fall 09 lm _8 - maxwell

fall 09 lm _8 - maxwell - Chem 481L Lab Module#8 Due Date...

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Chem 481L Fall 2009 Lab Module #8 Real Substances in the Ideal Limit Maxwell Distribution of Speeds Due Date: Noon, Tuesday, November 3 Submit via Blackboard Goal: To explore the physical properties of real gases in the ideal gas limit, specifically the distribution of speeds of the molecules in those gases. Research question: Do real substances, modeled by Virtual Substance, act ideally at low densities? That is, does Virtual Substance model real noble gases sufficiently that they demonstrate Maxwell’s distribution of speeds at low densities? Reading: Atkins, Physical Chemistry : kinetic model of gases and Maxwell distribution of speeds. Introduction Kinetic Theory of Matter (KMT): The Kinetic Theory of Matter shares assumptions with the ideal gas law: “point” particles with negligible volume interact with each other only through energy- conserving collisions (there are no intermolecular forces). While there exists an average speed for the particles, the individual particles’ speeds span a wide range, leading to a distribution of speeds at a given temperature. The actual form of this distribution, derived by Maxwell (and hence called the Maxwell distribution of speeds), is: RT Mv e v RT M v f 2 / 2 2 / 3 2 2 4 ) ( - = π π where M is molar mass and v is the speed. Lab Procedure Design and conduct a set of experiments to demonstrate Maxwell’s distribution of speeds at various temperatures. As you build your first gas, consider the following parameters: Atom type. Potential and boundary conditions: use Lennard-Jones potential between atoms and periodic boundary conditions.
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