4 - Nucleic Acid Structure

4 - Nucleic Acid Structure - DNA RNA Structure Voet Voet...

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plus the following sections 31-4, 32-4 (& 34-1)
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Nucleic Acid Structure Overview Primary Structure DNA RNA (B-form) (A-form) 5'-A TT GC T A T CCCGCAA TT CCA-3' DNA 5'-A UU GC U A U CCCGCAA UU CCA-3' RNA Secondary Structure DNA RNA (topology) (3° structures)
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Building blocks of nucleic acids Know: Full name 3-letter code 1-letter code Structures
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Nucleosides, Nucleotides Nucleo t ide = ribose sugar + base + phospha t e Nucleo s ide = ribose + base (just the s ugar) RNA DNA
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Nitrogenous Bases in Nucleic Acids N N purine pyrimidine (do not have to memorize these, just helpful in learning the four main nucleobases) N N N N N H
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Table 5-1 Purines Pyrimidines
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Nucleic Acid Primary Structure
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Bases can be either syn or anti relative to the ribose group anti is more common, predominates in helices
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The nucleotide unit has seven rotatable torsion angles… but, not all angles are possible.
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Five-membered rings (without a double bond) do not favor a planar conformation. Instead, five-membered rings adopt an "envelope" conformation. The position that is out of the plane (forms the envelope flap) is called endo or exo , depending on whether it points towards or away from a reference substituent. O O O X endo exo
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Predominates in DNA duplexes. Occurs in idiosyncratic regions of RNA structures. C2'- endo Conformation
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Predominates in RNA duplexes & in 70- 90% of non-canonical RNA structures. C3'- endo Conformation
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X-ray diffraction photograph of a vertically oriented DNA fiber Rosalind Franklin suggestive of a helix 3.4 Å repeat
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Watson-Crick Base Pairs A – T (U) G – C ( ) T (U)
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Watson-Crick Base Pairs A – T (U) …if these are connected by ribose backbone groups in the C2'- endo conformation, this creates the …
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B-form helix C2'-endo large, wide major groove narrow minor groove 3.4 Å rise base pairs perpendicular to helix 10 base pairs per turn Predominates for DNA 3.4 Å
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4 - Nucleic Acid Structure - DNA RNA Structure Voet Voet...

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